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THE TIMES-DEMOCRAT (1863) i Consolidated 
THE DAILY PICAYUNE (1837) ) April 6, 1914. 

The South's Greatest Newspaper 

An Independent Democratic Newspa- 
per, Which for 80 Years Has Been De- 
voted to the Upbuilding of the South — 
Louisiana and Mississippi Particularly. 

It blazed the way for the development of this great Southern 
metropolis — New Orleans — and for everything pertaining to 
the material welfare and advancement of the people. 

How well it has succeeded is shown by the patronage it 
receives from those whom it serves. It stands today FIRST 
in EVERYTHING— without a peer in its chosen field. 

Subscription Rates 

By Carrier or Agent; 

One week $0.15 

One month 0.65 

Three months 1.95 

Six months 3.90 

One year 7.80 

By Mail: 

One week $0.15 

One month 0.65 

Three months 1.95 

Six months 3.75 

One year 7.50 

Sunday Times-Picayune, per year, by mail $2.(X) 

Weekly Times-Picayune, per year 0.50 


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"An Individuality ' ' 

Dancing in the Tea Room Evenings 
121 to 129 St. Charles St. 

Phone Main 9122 









Copyright 1918 

By the times-picayune 

New Orleans 

©CI A4 94386 
9 1818 

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UNION — At Howard avenue and Rampart streets, for Illinois Central and Yazoo 
and Mississippi Valley, Southern Pacific. 

TERMINAL — At Canal and Basin streets. Gulf Coast lines (Frisco), Queen and 
Crescent (or New Orleans and Northeastern), New Orleans and Great North- 
ern and Louisiana Railway and Navigation Company's lines. 

LOUISVILLE AND NASHVILLE— Near head of Canal street, Louisville and Nash- 
^ ville and the Pontchartrain (Milneburg) lines. 

TRANS-MISSISSIPPI TERMINAL— In Annunciation, near Thalia, Texas and 

Pacific line. 

street ferry. 
LOUISIANA SOUTHERN— St. Claude and Elysian Fields streets. Branch Gulf 

Coast lines. 
STOP-OVERS — Free stop-overs are allowed at New Orleans on all railroad and 

steamship tickets, affording tourists an opportunity to see the city. 


Common streets. 

QUEEN AND CRESCENT— Under the St. Charles Hotel. St. Charles street. 




New Orleans Transfer Company, 840 Common. 
I'arcel Transfer Company, 734 Union. 



TCHOUl'ITOULAS— Starts at Audubon Park and Tchoupitoulas street. Down 
Tchoupitoulas to Race, to Annunciation, to How^ard avenue, to South Peters, to 
Canal, crossing Canal to North .Peters, to Esplanade avenue to Villere. Returns 
from Villere and Esplanade avenue, in Esplanade avenue, to North Peters, to Canal, 
"crossing Canal to Tchoupitoulas, to Howard avenue, to Annunciation, to Race, to 
Vchoupitoulas, to Audubon Park. 

ANNUNCIATION — Starts at Louisiana avenue and Howard street. In Louisi- 
ana avenue to Chippewa, to Orange, to Race, to Annunciation, to Erato, to Camp, 
to Canal, to Carondelet. Returns from Canal and Carondelet. Uo Carondelet to 
Clio, to Camp, to Erato, to Annunciation, to Race, to Annunciation, to Louisiana 
avenue, to Howard. 

ST. CHARLES BELT— Starts at Canal and Wells streets. Out Canal to Baronne, 
to Howard avenue, to St. Charles avenue, to Carrollton avenue, to Tulane avenue, 
to South Rampart, to Canal,- to Wells. 

TULANE BELT— Stkrts at Canal and Wells streets. Out Canal to South Ram- 
part, to Tulane avenue, to Carrollton avenue, to St. Charles avenue, to Howard 
avenue, to Baronne, to Canal, to W^ells. 

PETERS AVENUE— Starts at Tchoupitoulas and Peters avenue. Down Peters 
avenue to Dryades, to Julia, to St. Charles, to Canal, to Wells. Returns from Canal 
and Wells. Out Canal to Carondelet, to St. Andrew, to Brainard, to Baronne, to 
Dufossat, to Dryades, to Peters avenue, to Tchoupitoulas. 

PRYTANIA-VILLERE— Starts at Audubon Park and Hurst street. Down 
Hurst to Joseph, to Prytania, to Camp, to Canal, to North Rampart, to Dumaine, to 
Villere, to Lafayette avenue, to Franklin avenue, to St. James avenue. Returns 
from Franklin and St. James avenue. In Franklin avenue to Lafayette avenue, 
to Villere, to St. Peter, to North Rampart, to Canal, to Camp, to Prytania, to Joseph, 
to Hurst, to Audubon Park. 



NEW ORLEANS AND PONTCHARTRAIN— Starts at Napoleon avenue and 
Tchoupitoulas street. Out Napoleon avenue to Broad, to Washington avenue, to 
Carrollton avenue, to New Basin Shell road, to Metairie road, to Seventeenth street 
canal, to Shrewsbury. Returns from Shrewsbury to Seventeenth street canal, to 
Metairie road to New Basin shell road, to Carrollton avenue, to Washington avenue, 
to Broad, to Napoleon avenue, to Tchoupitoulas street. 

JACKSON AVENUE — Starts at Tchoupitoulas and Jackson avenue. Out Jack- 
son avenue, to St. Charles avenue, to Howard avenue, to Baronne, to Canal, to 
Wells. Returns from Canal and Wells streets. Out Canal to Baronne, to Howard 
avenue, to St. Charles avenue, to Jackson avenue, to Tchouvjitoulas street. 

LAUREL — Starts from Audubon Park and Laurel street. Down Laurel to 
Louisiana avenue, to Magazine, to Canal, to South Franklin. Returns from South 
Franklin and Canal streets. In Canal to Camp, to Camp Place, to Magazine, to 
Louisiana avenue, to Constance, to Valmont, to Laurel, to Audubon Park. 

MAGAZINE — Starts from Southport. To General Ogden, to Poplar, to Carroll- 
ton avenue, to Maple, to Broadway, to Magazine, to Canal, to Camp. Returns from 
Canal and Camp streets. Up Camp, to Camp Place, to Magazine, to Broadway, to 
Maple, to Carrollton avenue, to Oak, to Southport. 

LOUISIANA AVENUE — Starts from Tchoupitoulas and Louisiana avenue, to 
Howard, to Jackson avenue, to South Franklin, to Calliope, to Dryades, to Canal, 
to Wells. Returns from Canal and Wells streets. Out Canal, to South Rampart, 
to Calliope, to South Franklin, to Jackson avenue, to Freret, to Louisiana avenue, 
to Tchoupitoulas. 

HENRY CLAY-COLISEUM — Starts at Henry Clay avenue and Magazine street. 
O^ut Henry Clay avenue, to Coliseum, to Louisiana avenue, to Chestnut, to Felicity, 
to Camp, to Howard avenue, to St. Charles, to Canal, to Camp. Returns from Canal 
and Camp streets. Up Camp to Henry Clay avenue and Magazine street. 

DRYADES — Starts at Eighth and Carondelet streets. Out Eighth, to South 
Rampart, to Philip, to Dryades, to Felicity, to South Rampart, to Canal, to Canal 
street ferry landing. Returns from Canal street ferry landing. Out Canal, to St. 
Charles to Howard avenue, to Dryades, to St. Andrew, to Baronne, to Philip, to 
Baronne, to Eighth, to Carondelet. 

SOUTH CLAIBORNE AVENUE— Starts at South Claiborne and Carrollton ave- 
nue. South Claiborne avenue to Erato street, to Carondelet, to Canal, to St. Charles. 
Returns from Canal and St. Charles streets. Up St. Charles to Howard avenue, to 
South Rampart, to Clio, to South Claiborne avenue, to Carrollton avenue. Shuttle 
car operated from South Claiborne and Carrollton avenue to Protection levee. 


CLIO — Starts from Elysian Fields avenue and Decatur street. Out Elysian 
Fields avenue to Royal, to Canal, crossing Canal to St. Charles, to Howard avenue, 
to South Rampart, to Clio, to Magnolia, to Napoleon avenue, to Freret, to Broad- 
way and Maple streets. Returns from Broadway and Maple streets. Out Broad- 
way to Freret, to Napoleon avenue, to Magnolia, to Erato, to Carondelet, to Canal, 
crossing Canal to Bourbon, to Esplanade avenue, to Decatur, to Elysian Fields 

CARONDELET — Starts from Louisa and Royal street. Up Royal to Canal, 
crossing Canal to St. Charles, to Howard avenue, to Baronne, to Philip, to Caron- 
delet, to Napoleon avenue, to Freret, to Broadway, to Maple. Returns from Broad- 
way and Maple streets. Out Broadway to Freret, to Napoleon avenue, to Caron- 
delet, to Canal, crossing Canal to Bourbon, to Esplanade avenue, to Decatur, to 
Elysian Fields avenue, to Chartres, to Louisa street. 

NORTH CLAIBORNE AVENUE— Starts from St. Claude avenue and Kentucky 
street. Up St. Claude avenue to Lafayette avenue, to Urquhart, to Elysian F'ields 
avenue, to North Claiborne avenue, to Canal, to Wells street. Returns from Canal 
and Wells streets. Out Canal to North Claiborne avenue, to Elysian Fields avenue, 
to St. Claude avenue, to Kentucky street. 

SPANISH FORT AND WEST END— Starts from South Rampart and Canal 
streets. South Rampart to Canal, to City Park avenue, to West End Boulevard, 
to Adams avenue, to Esplanade avenue, to Spanish Fort. Returns over same route 
from Spanish Fort. 

CANAL BELT — Starts at Canal and Wells streets. Out Canal street to City 
Park avenue, to Moss, to Esplanade avenue, to North Rampart, to Canal, to Wells. 

ESPLANADE BELT— Starts from Canal and Wells streets. Out Canal to North 
Rampart, to Esplanade, to Moss, to City Park avenue, to Canal, to Wells. 

DAUPHINE— Starts from Canal and Wells streets. Out Canal to North Ram- 
part, to Esplanade avenue, to Dauphine, to Reynes, to Chartres, to Tricou. to North 
Peters, to Mehle. Returns from Mehle, to North Peters, to Delery, to Dauphine, to 
Poland, to North Rampart, to Canal, to Wells. 

LEVEE AND BARRACKS— Starting from Canal and Chartres streets. To 
North Peters, to Lafayette avenue, to Chartres, to Poland, to Dauphine, to Reynes, 
to Chartres, to Tricou, to North Peters, to Chalmette. Returns from Chalmette. To 
North Peters, to Delery, to Chartres, to Reynes, to Dauphine, to Poland, to Royal, 
to Lafayette avenue, to North Peters, to Canal, to Chartres. 

BROAD-ST. BERNARD— Starts from Canal and Dauphine. To Burgundy, to 
Dumaine, to Broad, to St. Bernard avenue, to North Claiborne avenue. Returns 
from St. Bernard and North Claiborne. St. Bernard to Broad, to St. Peter, to 
Dauphine, to Canal. 


BROAD-PARIS AVENUE— Starts from Canal and Dauphine. To Burgundy, to 
Dumaine, to Broad, to St. Bernard avenue, to Paris avenue, to Gentilly avenue. 
Returns from Gentilly avenue. Paris avenue to Broad, to St. Peter, to Dauphine, 
to Canal. 

BAYOU ST. JOHN — Starts from Canal and Dauphine. To Burgundy, to 
Dumaine, to Moss, to Grande Route St. John, to barn. Starts from barn. To Gen- 
tilly and Laharpe, to Bayou Road, to Broad, to Ursuline, to Dauphine, to Canal. 

MARKET AND CITY PARK— Starts from Canal and Decatur Street. Canal to 
North Peters, to Dumaine, to City Park avenue. Returns from City Park avenue 
and Dumaine streets. In Dumaine, to Rendon, to Ursuline avenue, to Decatur, to 
North Peters, to Canal, to Decatur, 


ACCOMMODATION CAR — Operated from entrance of Greenwood Cemetery to 
Half-'Way House. 


For Baton Rouge and Upper Coast Landings to Melville and on Black and 
Ouachita Rivers — Carter Packet Co., 530 Gravier street. 

For New Iberia, Jeanerette, Morgan City, Berwick and Landings on Teche — 
316 Magazine street. 

For all Landings on Bayou Lafourche — Head of Iberville street. 

For Vicksburg and the Bends — 301 Magazine. 

For Across the Lake Points — Wm. Miller, 126 South Rampart. 


Morgan Line, wharf at head of St. Ann street — For New York and Havana. 

United Fruit Company, wharf at head of Thalia street — For Belize, Barrios, 
Limos, Bocas, Puerto Cortez and Honduras. 

Bluefields Fruit and Steamship Company 104 "Whitney Building — For Cape 
Gracias, Nicaragua. 

Mexican Fruit and Steamship Company, 706 Whitney Building^For Cuba and 

Gulf and Southern Steamship Company, 707 Gravieri — To Tampa. 

Mexican Navigation Company, 513 Whitney Building — For Vera Cruz. 

Italian Lines. L. Del Orto, 129 Decatur street — For Gibraltar, Naples, Genoa, 
Paris and other European points. 


National District Telegraph (Western Union). 
Postal Telegraph, 206 St. Charles. 
American District Telegraph, 618 Common. 
Hurry Messenger Service, 110 Elk Place. 


Western Union, St. Charles and Gravier. 
Postal, 206 St. Charles. 


American, St. Charles and Union street. 

Southern Express Company, 724 Union. 

Wells Fargo Express Company, Camp and Common streets. 

New Orleans Express and City Delivery, 522 Gravier. 


St. Charles, St. Charles and Common streets. 

Grunewald Hotel and Annex, 123 Baronne. 

Cosmopolitan, 120 Bourbon. 

Monteleone, Royal and Iberville. 

De Soto Hotel, Baronne and Perdido. 

Lafayette Hotel, St. Charles and South streets. 


Grunewald Forest Grill, Grunewald Hotel. 

St. Charles Hotel Cafe. 

Kolb's, 125 St. Charles. 

Louisiane, 717 Iberville. 

Rathskeller, 414 St. Charles. 

Galatoire's, 209 Bourbon. 

Antoine's, 713 St. Louis. • 

Gem, 127 Royal. 

Begue's, Decatur and Madison. 

Comus Restaurant, Common street, near St. Charles. 



Howard Library (Reference), Howard avenue, Camp and Lee Circle. 

New Orleans Public Library, St. Charles, near Howard. 

Branches of New Orleans Public Library, Royal, at Frenchmen; Napoleon 
avenue, at Magazine; Canal street, near Gayoso; Pelican street, Algiers; Pliilip, 
near Dryades (for negroes). 

State Library, Orleans Parish Court Building, Royal street. 

Tilton Library, Tulane University. 

Medical Library, New Orleans Medical School, 1551 Canal. 

Bobet Library, Loyola University. 


State Museum (Historical), old Cabildo, Chartres street. 

State Museum (agricultural and animal exhibits), old Presbytery, Chartres 
street. , 

Delgado Art Museum, City Pari?;. 

Natural History Museum, Gibson Hall, Tulane University. 
.Medical Museum, Medical Building, Tulane University. 
Memorial Hall (Confederate), 929 Camp street. 


French Opera House, Bourbon and Toulouse. - 

Tulane, Baronne, near Common. 

Crescent, Baronne and Common. 

Orpheum (vaudeville, 432 St. Charles. 

Lafayette (vaudeville), Baronne, near Lafayette. 

Lyric (burlesque), Bourbon, at Iberville. 


The principal shopping district is along Canal street, between Camp and 
Dryades, and on the cross streets either way; though there are important centers 
of trade up Dryades and Magazine streets and in other sections of the city. 

Poydras street, from Camp to the river, with several blocks along the cross 
streets, comprises the principal wholesale district. 


Boston Club (social), 824 Canal street. 

Pickwick Club, Canal, near Rampart. 

Chess, Checkers and Whist Club, Baronne and Canal. 

Louisiana Club, Canal and Carondelet. 

Harmony Club, 2134 St. Charles. 

Young Men's Gymnastic Club, 224 North Rampart. 

Stratford Club, 313 St. Charles. 

Round Table Club, 1435 Jackson avenue. 

Young Men's Hebrew Association, 1205 St. Charles. 

Elks' Club, 121 Elk Place. 

New Orleans Press Club, 117 St. Charles. 

Southern Yacht Club, "West End. 

Young Men's Christian Association, i817 St. Charles. 

Rotary Club of New Orleans, 840 Gravier. 

Choctaw Club, Grunewald Hotel. 

Audubon Golf Club, 400 Walnut street. 

New Orleans Country Club, Metairie Ridge. 

Knights of Columbus, 836 Carondelet. 

New Orleans Lawn Tennis Club, 4025 Saratoga. 

Pontchartrain Rowing Club, West End. 

Catholic Athletic Association, 6137 Marquette Place 

Catholic Woman's Club, 349 Baronne street. 

Young Women's Christian Association, 920 Common. 


Cotton Exchange. 

Board of Trade. 

Contractors and Dealers' Exchange. 

Stock Exchange. 

Sugar and Rice Exchange. 

Association of Commerce. 



First Presbyterian, South street. 

Prytania Presbyterian, Prytania and Josephine. 

Napoleon Avenue Presbyterian, Napoleon Avenue and Coliseum. 

Lafayette Presbyterian, Magazine, near Jackson. 

Memorial Church, Franklin avenue, near Erato. 



First Methodist, St. Charles avenue, near Calliope. 
Rayne Memorial, St. Charles avenue and General Taylor. 
Parker Memorial, Nashville avenue and Pitt. 
Carrollton Avenue, CarroUton avenue and Elm. 
Louisiana Avenue, Magazine and Louisiana avenue. 
Felicity Street Church, Felicity street and Chestnut. 
Second Church, 824 St. Ferdinand. 
Mary Werlein Mission, 1026 Tchoupitoulas. 


Coliseum Place Church, Terpsichore street and Coliseum Place. 
First Baptist Church, St. Charles Avenue and Delachaise. 
Second Baptist Church, Hillary and St. Charles avenue. 
Grace Baptist Church, 3900 North Rampart. 


Christ Church Cathedral, St. Charles avenue and Sixth. 

Trinity Church, Jackson avenue and Coliseum. 

St. George's Church, St. Charles avenue and Cadiz. 

St. Paul's Church, Camp and Gaiennie. 

Free Church of the Annunciation, Camp and Race. 

St. Anna's Church, Esplanade, near Marais. 

St. Andrew's Church, Carrollton Avenue and Zimpel. 

Grace Church, South Rampart, near Canal (will be moved). 


St. Louis Cathedral, Chartres, between St. Peter and St. Ann. 

Jesuits', Baronne, near Canal. 

Holy Name of Jesus, St. Charles, opposite Audubon Park. 

Notre Dame de Bon Secours, Jackson avenue, near Laurel. 

St. Alphonsus', Constance, between St. Andrew and Josephine. 

St. Mary's, Chartres, between Ursuline and Hospital. 

St. Patrick's, Camp, near Girod. 

Mater Dolorosa, Carrollton and Plum. 

St. Roch's Chapel, between North Derbigny and North Roman. 

St. Stephen's, Napoleon avenue and Camp. 

St. Theresa's, Coliseum and Erato. 


Temple Sinai, Carondelet, near Calliope. 
Touro, St. Charles, corner Berlin. 


First, Camp and Seventh. 


First Church, 1831 Carondelet. 

Salem Church, 4214 Camp. 

German Church, Jackson avenue and Chippewa. 


First English, 1032 Port. 

Grace Church, 220 North Scott. 

Zion Church, St. Charles avenue and St. Andrew. 


St. Charles Avenue Church, St. Charles and Calliope. 


First Church, Peters avenue and South Rampart. 


Beginning with Canal street, going north and south, the streets are numbered 
one hundred to the block. Cross streets are numbered from the river, in the same 
manner, in streets rui;ning parallel with the river the even numbers are on the 
river side anJ the odd numbers on the lake side. In cross streets the even numbers 
are on the south side and the odd on the north. 




„ .,'^he Haunted House, the Cabildo, the Cathedral, the Presbytery, the Pontalba 
Buildings Jackson Square the French Market, the old Archlepiscopal Palace, the 
United States Mint, the Chalmette Battlefield, the National Cemetery the Old St 
Louis Cemeteries, the Scenes in Cable's Stories, the City Park, with ' the Deleado 
Museum, and the New Courthouse in Royal street. ueigaao 


The Shopping District, the Customhouse, the River Front and the Cemeteries. 


Lee Monument, Howard Library, Memorial Hall, New Orleans Public Library 
Tulane University, Loyola University, Newcomb College, Audubon Park the Charity 
Hospital and the "Water Works and Filtration Plant, Great Municipal Cotton Ware- 


Nearly forty miles of docks, the wharves and the steel sheds, the cotton ware- 
house, the grain elevator, the bajiana wharves and coffee warehouses. 


With the exception of the Napoleon Avenue line, all street cars may be taken 
on Canal street. All of the uptown cars give transfers to the Napoleon Avenue line 
The system of transfers between cars running up or downtown makes it possible 
to traverse the city from end to end on payment of a single fare of five cents. 


Ferries cross the river in several places, so that there is constant intercourse 
between the two sides of the Mississippi. 

The First District ferry crosses from the head of Canal street to Algiers- the 
Third District ferry from the head of Esplanade avenue to Algiers; the Fourth 
District ferry from Jackson avenue to Gretna; the Sixth District ferry from Louisi- 
ana avenue to Harvey's canal; the Richard Street ferry from Richard street to 
Freetown, and the Walnut Street ferry from Walnut street to Westwego. 


Population (estimated) , 1916 378,000 

Area of city in square miles '.'.'.'.'.'... . . .196 ■ "i \ 

Number of city parks ....'".'!.'. 84 ' 

Area of city parks in acres 906 

Total assessed valuation municipal 1915 ' . .$243 ,'237,331 

Number of miles of modern dock facilities '. . . .'.30 

Total value of exports for 1915 $2i8,'97'7','752 

Number of miles of water mains laid '. . . .592 

Number of premises connected with water mains .'.'.'.71,600 

Average daily water consumption (gallons) 31,57l[000 

Number of miles of sewer mains laid ,...'... .493 

Number of premises connected with sewers 69,776 

Belt Railroad, municipal ow^ned (miles) 4S 

Miles of open streets 525 

Miles of paved streets ', [308 

Number of public libraries 11 

Public library volumes 178,000 

Number of public schools 88 

Enrollment in public schools 49,116 

Valuation of schoolhouses and equipment $4,242,000 

Number of railroads entering city 11 

Fire department, equipment sixty modern machines. 
Has one of the finest electric street car systems in the world. 
Has the largest sugar refinery in the world. 
Is the largest oyster market in the world. 
Has the largest floating steel dock in the world. 
Has the largest immigration station in the South. 
Temperature in the winter, usually between 50 and 60 degrees. 
Temperature in summer, between 75 and 90 degrees. 
Has most modern system of water purification in the world. 
Is the largest cotton, sugar, rice and banana market in the Union. 
Water supply potable, palatable and free from dangerous bacteria. 
Water — Safest obtainable and quantity unlimited, 
i Water rate comparatively lowest in the United States. 



NO. 127 ROYAL STREET, connected with Reconstruction times as the scene 
in which the speaker of the House of Representatives bolted from the Legislature 
and tried to organize an independent branch of that body. 

NO. 126 ROYAL STREET, the old Merchants' Exchange, the lower floor of 
which was used as a postoffice from 1835 to 1844. On the second floor, in the 
United States Courthouse, Walker, the celebrated filibuster, was tried in . 1857. 

OLD BANK, granite building one block from Canal street, in Royal, which 
was built by the Union Bank and occupied by it for many years. 

THE ANTIQUE STORES in Royal street, where one will find the wreckage 
from many luxurious homes of the old days. 

NO. 417 ROYAL STREET, the first bank building in New Orleans and after- 
wards the home of Paul Morphy, the well known chess player. It was in this 
building that he died in 1884. The courtyard has always been an object of interest 
to tourists 

The site of the OLD HOTEL ROYAL, immediately below the new marble 

AT NO. 527 ROYAL STREET, the old Commanderia, the headquarters of the 
Spanish Mounted Police. This building was erected in 1784 by Governor Miro, one 
of the Spanish governors. The archway is flanked by old cannon, deeply imbedded 
in the ground. 

The structure known as " 'SIEUR GEORGE'S HOUSE," described by Cable in 
"Old Creole Days." This might have been called the first sky-scraper in New Or- 
leans, as it was originally three stories in height, and in 1814 another story was 


cathedral in Orleans street. This building was originally a dance hall, where 
the famous quadroon dances were held, adjoining the old Orleans Theater: and 
afterward it was used as a criminal court building. It was opened in 1817 as a 
theater, and in 1827 was for a short time the State House, as the Legislature met 
here, the State House having being burned. 

At the corner of Dumaine and Royal, the RESIDENCE OF MR. POREE, on the 
balcony of which Gayarre, the historian, saw a group of Creole women waving 
farewell to the American troopers as they marched out to fight the British in 1815. 

At Royal and Hospital streets, the "HAUNTED HOUSE," scene of another of 
Cable's most popular stories. 

On the Esplanade near the river the disused UNITED STATES MINT. 

In Chartres, in the block above Hospital, the oldest building in the Mississippi 
Valley; the URSULINE CONVENT for many years, and afterwards for some years 
the Archiepiscopal palace. 

Immediately opposite, the old HOME OF THE BEAUREGARD FAMILY. 

JACKSON SQUARE, once the Place d'Armes. 

THE ST. LOUIS CATHEDRAL, with the PRESBYTERY below and the 
CABILDO above. 

In the rear of the Cabildo, in St. Peter street, the old SPANISH ARSENAL. 

In Chartres and Dumaine, an old tile-roof house, Spanish, and next to the 
Archbishop's Palace, perhaps the oldest in the city. 

THE PONTALBA BUILDINGS, on either side of Jackson Square. 

The FRENCH MARKET, near the river, below Jackson Square. 

Above Toulouse street, in Chartres, the old ORLEANS HOTEL, once the finest 
hostelry in the Mississippi Valley, now used as an ice factory. 

At 514 Chartres street, the "GIROD HOUSE," built in 1821 by Nicholas Girod 
as a home for Napoleon, whom he planned to rescue from St. Helena. 

THE OLD ABSINTHE HOUSE, at Bourbon and Bienville. 

THE FRENCH OPERA HOUSE, at Bourbon and Toulouse. 

At Rampart and Conti, the old church of ST. ANTHONY OF PADUA, for many 
years the mortuary chapel of the French Quarter. 

In the rear of this church the oldest cemetery in the city, ST. LOUIS 


In Rampart street, BEAUREGARD SQUARE, once known as Congo Square. 

THE CITY PARK, with the tomb of Allard and the Duelling Oaks. 

The old URSULINE CONVENT, downtown, occupied from 1824 to a few years 
ago, when the convent was moved to State street. 




French Opera House — See Page 40. 

Old Hotel Royal, recently demolislied — See Page 36. 


ST. ROCH'S CHAPEL, and burial ground. 

At Canal and Bourbon, site of Christ Episcopal Church, the first Protestant 
house of worship in New Orleans, also of the first synagogue, bought by Judah 
Touro for the Congregation Dispersed of Judah. 

Site of Dr. Antommarchi's office, at the Royal street entrance of the Cosmo- 
politan Hotel. 

In St. Philip street, between Royal and Bourbon, the site of the St. Philippe 
Theater, built in 1808; the second theater constructed in New Orleans. 

At Chartres and Esplanade, the headquarters of the slave traffic in New Or- 
leans, the barracks where the slaves were quartered being near at hand. 

The block from Barracks to Hospital street, the site of the French military 
barracks erected by Governor Kerlerec in 1758. 

Corner of Hospital and Chartres, the site of the first hospital erected in New 

In Chartres, river side, between Philip and Dumaine, the site of the United 
States Courthouse, where General Jackson was fined $1000 for contempt. 

Corner of Chartres and St. Philip, the site of the blacksmith shop of Lafitte, 
the pirate. 

Corner of Chartres and Dumaine, site of the first public hall, built in 1795. 

In Chartres, near St. Louis, the site of the old Strangers' Hotel, where Lafay- 
ette was entertained, and where Antommarchi presented the death mask of Napoleop 
to the city. 

Conti and Chartres street, the site of the first mayor's residence. 

Corner of Bienville and Chartres the Ursuline nuns were housed temporarily 
while their first permanent home was being made ready for them. 

Corner of Chartres and Iberville, the site of a clothing store kept by Paul Tulane. 
founder of Tulane University. 

At 716 St. Peter street, the site of the old Tabary Theater, the first structure 
of its kind in New Orleans, built in 1791. 

In the rear of Beauregard Square, the site of the old Parish Prison, the scene 
of the Mafia lynchings. 

Site of Mechanics' Institute and University of Louisiana, University Place. 


The old Hotel Royal is but a site now, for the structure which meant so much 
to this city before the middle of the last century .has been demolished. The old 
Orleans Hotel is an ice factory. All the hotels are new and modern and attrac- 
tive, and that is as it should be. 

ST. CHARLES HOTEL. — Some hotel has always occupied this site, since the 
days when it began to be used for building purposes at all. The first structure 
was built in 1835, or a year or two later, by James H. Caldwell, one of the most 
enterprising and useful citizens of the old days. This building was the City Ex- 
change; and it will be interesting for the public to know that even in that early 
day the ground cost $100,000 and the outlay on the building was half a million. 
With its 350 bedrooms, its marble-paved octagonal rotunda and its beautiful domie, 
185 feet high. This was considered, and doubtless really was, one of the finest 
hotel buildings in the United States, if not in the world. 

In the great fire of 1851 the City Exchange was destroyed; and within two 
days the directors had met and decided upon a new hotel — and the second struc- 
ture was completed within one year. This was the old St. Charles Hotel. 

A New York visitor said of this structure: "Set the St. Charles down in St. 
Petersburg and you would call it a palace; in Boston, and ten to one you would 
christen it a college; in London, and it would marvelously remind you of an ex- 
change; in New Orleans, it is all three." 

There were years of unparalleled prosperity for the new hotel, and then came 
the war. General Butler, arriving at the city, demanded the St. Charles as a head- 
quarters for himself and staff, but Hildreth, the lessee, declined to admit him. 
Butler's forces had to break their way in, and they occupied it for a few days; 
but finally moved to other quarters and left the hotel to its manager. The war 
times were discouraging ones to the St. Charles, and after the war was over, when 
the forlorn and ragged soldiers began to trail through the city on their way home, 
in one sorrowful procession, this and other hotels threw the doors open to them 
and entertained the moneyless without money and without price. 

In 1894, the old St. Charles was destroyed by fire. Then came the new St. 
Charles, modern in every way and always attractive to the visitor. 

THE GRUNEWALD. — Once upon a time, years ago, there was a structure called 
Grunewald Hall, where musical entertainments were given during the last quarter 
of the nineteenth century. It, like many of the prominent buildings of the city, 
went out by fire; and that time is memorable for the. daring work done by mem- 
bers of the fire department in saving a number of persons who were in the fifth 
and sixth stories. 



Chartres Street, showing- G-irod Residence aud the Napoleon House 

Spanish Tile Roof House at the Corner of Chartres and Bumaine Streets, 
recently demolished. 


On the site of that building rose the Grunewald Hotel, that part of it which 
faces Baronne street. Some years later, so rapid was its progress, it became 
necessary for the hotel to have more room, so the Grunew^ald Annex was added, 
facing University Place, the tallest sky-scraper in New Orleans and one of the 
most up-to-date structures in the city. 

HOTEL DE SOTO. — One of the modern hotels of New Orleans is the Hotel 
De Soto, erected in 1906, on Baronne and Perdido. The De Soto was at first the 
Hotel Denechaud, but the name and managem.ent were changed after a few years. 
It is the boast of the De Soto that all the rooms are outside rooms, owing to a 
peculiarity of position and constructior , 

HOTEL, MONTELEONE. — The decade ending in 1910 contributed several hotels 
to this city, among them being, the Hotel Monteleone, at the corner of Royal and 
Iberville streets. The hotel stands on the site of several historic buildings, but 
it may be said that the hotel itself is strictly new. 

COSMOPOLITAN HOTEL.— At 120 Bourbon stands the Cosmopolitan Hotel, one 
of the well know^n hostelries of the city, and belonging to the group of modern 

LAFAYETTE HOTEL.— The very newest of the new hotels is the Lafayette, at 
the corner of St. Charles and South streets, fronting Lafayette Square. Several 
old buildings, with iron-railed balconies, next to the First Presbyterian Church, 
were demolished to make room for this new and modern structure. 


From time immemorial New Orleans has had the reputation as the one place in 
the United States where one could alwrays find the best cookery, and could get 
the best coffee that was ever put before mortal man. ' New Orleans cookery — clis- 
tinguished men have raved over it; novelists have attempted to describe it; trav- 
elers have come back again and again just for the pleasure of making another 
round of the old restaurants and partaking of the old, incomparable fare. 

What has become of the chefs of the old time? — of Boudro. Moreau, the elder 
Antoine, of the elder , Madame Begue. of a hundred others who helped to make the 
fame of New Orleans in the old days? 

They have gone their ways, alas! but there is still the best of good cookery in 
New Orleans. Boudro and Moreau are no more; and the elder Antoine has passed 
to his reward — but there are sons who have taken up the work of Antoine; and 
one may still have incomparable breakfasts at Begue's. 

The restaurants of today have changed in some things, it is true; but there they 
still cook! 

You will have trouble to find one of them with the sanded floor, which made 
up part of the charm of the old days — so quaint, don't you know! Now the old 
houses have been rat-proofed, and while they were about it they put down beauti- 
fully m.odern tiled floors in most of them; and they are as sanitary as the Board 
of Health could wish Not only that — one must keep up with the times; people 
will dance, though the heavens fall! — and some of the oldest and most delightful 
of the charming old restaurants have introduced a cabaret feature, and the guests 
arise and dance between the courses! 

Think of the contrast! The cookery of a hundred years ago — and the guests 
fox-trotting down the aisles while Alphonse brings on the next course! 

This is one evidence that New Orleans is leaving the old traditions behind; but 
while she is doing that, she has kept the essential things — such as black coffee in 
the early mornings and the secret of preparing dishes for the gods out of the most 
unexpected things. 

When the elder Antoine passed away, two of his sons took up his work in 
different restaurants. One of them is called "Antoine's," and is at 713 St. Louis 
street; w^hile the other is the "Louisiane," and is at 719 Iberville street. This one 
of the Alciatores makes his yearly journeys to Paris to study what there is of new 
to be learned from the best chefs in that city, and is very greatly honored in the 
gay capital — which is something to say of anyone. In this manner he keeps at 
the head of his profession, and instead of weakening with the years it seems that 
the chefs of today are still more efficient in their art than those of a past gen- 

Galatoire's at 209 Bourbon, is another of the old restaurants. As for Begue's 
— for fifty years or more Begue's has been one of the magnets w^hlch attracted 
all comers. Begue's moved across the street, and is now at Decatur and Madison 
streets, serving the eleven o'clock breakfast as of old. 

There are multitudes of newer restaurants, all of which have their devotees; 
but these old ones are like the antiques in Royal street — loved memorials of other 




ST. CHARLES KELT — Jesuit Church; Tulane and Crescent Theaters; Lee 
Statue; New Orleans Public Library; Young Men's Hebrew Association; Harmony 
Club; Christ Church Cathedral; Touro Synagogue; Sacred Heart School; Loyola 
University; Tulane University; Audubon Place; Audubon Park; Dominican Convent 
and School; Carrollton Levee; Palmer Park; Heinemann Baseball Park; St. Joseph's 
Church; Hotel Dieu; Charity Hospital; Senses Hospital; Elk Place. 

TULANE BELT — The same, in reverse order. 

PRYTANIA, GOING DOWN— Audubon Park; Girls' High School; Touro In- 
firmary; New Orleans Female Orphans' Asylum; Margaret Statue; Howard Li- 
brary; Mero.orial Hall; St. Patrick's Church; New Federal Building; Lafayette 
Square; The Times-Picayune Office. 

CANAL BELT — Liberty Monument; Customhouse; Hutchinson's Memorial Med- 
ical College; Boys' High School; Cemeteries; City Park; Delgado Museum; Munici- 
pal Golf Course; Bayou St. John; New St. Louis Cemetery; Lower Girls' High 
richool; Archiepiscopal Palace; Beauregard Square. 

LEVEE AND BARRACKS— Jackson Square; State Museum; Cathedral (one 
block); French Market; Mint; Holy Cross College; United States Jackson Bar- 
racks; Chalmette. 

CARONDELET, GOING DOWN— Rear of Tulane Campus; Audubon Place; 
Napoleon Avenue; Presbyterian Hospital; Scottish Rite Cathedral; crosses Canal 
street; Absinthe House; French Opera House. 

CARONDELET, GOING UP— One block from the following points: Old Ur- 
suline Convent; Cabildo (State Museum); Cathedral; 'Sieur George's House; Old 
Orleans Hotel; Girod's Refuge for Napoleon; past site of Hotel Royal; New Court- 
house; Paul Morphy's Home; Orpheum Theater; Lafayette Square, with McDonoglj 
Monument; City Hall; Washington Artillery Hall; Y. M. C. A.; Lee Statue. 

NAPOLEON AVENUE (all cars transfer with this line) — From river, out 
Napoleon avenue, into Carrollton avenue, along New Basin Canal, past Country 
Club to Metairie Cemetery and over Metairie Ridge to Shrewsbury. 

TCHOUPITOULAS — The Tchoupitoulas line skirts the river, sometimes run- 
ning very near and at others two or three blocks away. This line is the one which 
follows the docks and the commercial portion of the city, passing within sight of the 
Cotton Warehouse, the Grain Elevator, the Fruit W^harf, and many other thriving 
industries. This will be found a most interesting itinerary. 

Car in the Rex Mardi Gras Fagfeant. — See Page 25. 



" be 



It is curious and interesting to know that New Orleans, on the very borders 
of the gulf was founded because men were finding the fur trade very profit- 
ably, a thousand miles to the North. 

In what was then called New France, everybody dealt in furs — traded with 
the Indians and with one another for furs; thought about furs as the one 
thing to be considered in this brave new world. 

Therefore it happened that the governor of New France appointed a gen- 
tleman named Joliet to push explorations and extend the limits of the fur 
trade; and therefore Joliet and Pere Marquette started the voyages, further 
and further ■ south, which finally led La Salle and Tonti to the mouth of the 
Mississippi, and which still later drew Bienville through Lake Borgne, up through 
the Rigolets and finally into Bayou St. John. 

That was a fateful day, had he but known it, for the land on which he 
first set foot was going to be Esplanade avenue, in the fulness of time, beau- 
tifully paved and adorned with long avenues of greenery, and faced by the 
Girls' High School and the Archiepiscopal Palace and the Mint; and running 
gaily on to the river and docks, with the commerce of an empire going up 
and down before them. 

Did Bienville have the far vision? Did he have the remotest glimpse of the 
city that was to be? 

Settlements had been made on Dauphin island, in Mobile bay, and at Bi- 
loxi; but these were handicapped, the former by storms and the latter by a shal- 
low and impracticable harbor. True, there were bars at all the mouths of the 
Mississippi, but the boats of that time could pass over them. Bienville him- 
self, writing to France to ask that the seat of government be moved to the 
banks of the Mississippi, said that he had seen two ships of at least four hun- 
dred tons burden entering the mouth of the river with all sails spread! 

Eventually the change was made; but things moved slow^ly in those days. 
The settlement at New Orleans was made in 1718 — that is, Bienville sent an en- 
gineer and workmen to lay out the pew city, and to build such houses as should 
be needed in the beginning. The seat of government was not actually moved 
until 1722. During that year the tiny village with its cluster of huts, lifted 
but a few feet above the river, poorly ditched and not drained at all, with a 
thousand undreamed-of dangers and difficulties ready to confront the adven- 
turous colonists, became the capital city of the French government in the New 

The old city, or the Vieux Carre, included that parallelogram that extends 
from Canal street to Esplanade avenue and from Rampart street to the river. 
In the middle front a portion of land was set aside for a parade ground, and 
back of it another portion for ecclesiastical purposes. A rude church was at 
once constructed on the latter area — the progenitor of the St. Louis Cathedral 
of today — and the former became the Place d'Armes, now know^n as Jack- 
son Square. 

Most of the streets bore names in memory of that France to which the 
hearts of the exiles turned with homesick longing. Chartres, Royal, Burgundy, Du- 
maine, Bourbon, St. Louis, Conde, Toulouse — these are the names that tell the 
story of the origin of the city. One single street was named in honor of the 
founder of the city — Bienville — his only memorial in the city, which is generally 
gifted with a long memory; and another now bears the name of his brother, 

Later on there was a hospital — they needed it, to be sure! — and the street that 
ran that way is Hospital street. "When the time came that the French from the 
forts along the Ohio and other streams had to come down the river and take 
refuge in La Nouvelle Orleans, a new military barracks was erected at the 
lower river corner of the city, and that street came to be known as Rampart 

On the side furthest from the river extended the old rampart beyond which 
was swamp and the grisly shadows of Congo Square (Beauregard Square). There 
runs Rampart street today. 

The upper line of the city was a small bayou, emptying into the river, 
and when the town was afterwards fortified, this formed one of the moats. 

"When the Ursuline nuns came to the city, and a convent was built for 
them, the street at the oorner became Ursuline street. One of those Ursulines, 
housed temporarily at the corner of Chartres and Bienville, wrote in her let- 
ters home that she could not sleep at night for the roaring of the alligators 
in the bayou, almost under her window. That bayou is now Canal street! 

The principal streets were Royal and Chartres, and here were the most 
important business houses, as well as many of the residences in which were 
housed the more important colonists. 




The little city was, after a while, protected by five forts; three on the Ram- 
part street side, and one at each of the river corners. The customhouse occupies 
the site of one of these, the Mint the other. "V\»hen the fortifications were at 
their best, the forts were connected by a parapet fifteen feet high, and by a 
moat seven feet deep and forty feet wide; and the ditches were crossed by draw- 

Parapets and moats and drawbridges — and the ringing of the curfew at 9 
o'clock every night — all these in the history of an American city that is filled 
with skyscrapers and rings from end to end with the din of commerce, today! 

In the new little town, every block was surrounded by a ditch — and the 
property owner had to keep his own ditch in order. Thes** ditches were two 
feet wide and from one foot to a foot and a half deep — and they were ex- 
pected to take care of the overflow during high water! Up to 1732 the bridges 
over these ditches were made of wood, but repairs were expensive, and it was 
then proposed to build them of brick. Many of the citizens were too poor to 
afford the extra expense, and therefore a tax was levied on the negro slaves. It 
seems that the citizens were inclined to shrug eloquent shoulders at this law^, so 
the home government passed an ordinance making it compulsory to build brick 
bridges or pay a fine. It is said that even this did not have the desired ef- 
fect, and the bridges were in perpetual disorder. 

The second year there was an overflow, and the citizens of New Orleans be- 
gan to learn what the river could do. The levee had to be raised, the ditches 
to be made deeper, and from that day to this New Orleans and all the val- 
ley have been struggling against the pitiless encroachments of the river. 

There was a storm also, that second year, and thirty of the one hundred 
houses were utterly destroyed — among them, that first little church which meant 
so much to the new colony. 

One of the interesting events of the early days was the arrival of a party 
of German immigrants. They had gone up the river to settle in Arkansas, but 
after they reached the designated point they were dissatisfied with the arrange- 
ments made for them, and came back down the river, intending to return to 
Germany. But there was delay about securing their passage; in the meantime, 
tracts of land thirty miles above New Orleans were offered them; and they 
settled there at what is now called the German Coast, and began raising veg- 
etables for the colonists — thus beginning the great truck raising industry which 
has developed immense sections of Southern Louisiana. 

It has been mentioned that a company of Ursulines came to the city be- 
fore it had attained its fifth year, to take over the education of girls; that they 
had temporary quarters at Chartres and Bienville, and that a convent was erected 
for them further down Chartres, at what is now the corner of Ursuline. This 
interesting old building, believed to be the oldest in the Mississippi valley, 
is still standing and still in use. It was used by the nuns for ninety-four years, 
at the end of which time they moved their school and their belongings down 
the river, near the Barracks. In the course of the years it became necessary 
for them to move again; and they went uptown, to State street, where they 
■were able to secure more land, and to erect stately buildings. 

In the meantime, the convent became the "Archbisop's Palace." It w^as the 
home of the lamented Archbishop Perche, who died there; and it was here 
that Archbishop Janssens passed the declining years of his life. After liis 
death, another residence was given to the succeeding archbishop, and this old 
building was devoted to the use of the young students for the priesthood, who 
use it still. 

In 1727, the same year that marked the arrival of the Ursulines, came 
the Jesuits, who prepared to take over the education of the boys and young 
men. They were given a large plantation above Canal street; were furnished 
with a residence, a chapel and slaves to cultivate their lands. 

It was during the following year that the first consignment of "Cassette 
Girls" arrive'd in the city. Previously to this time, girls and women from the 
hospitals and the houses of correction had been sent over in great i. umbers, 
but now there was a demand for wives for the better class of citizens; and so 
came the Cassette girls, each one supplied by the king with a small chest 
of clothing or "cassette." The Ursulines took charge of these girls until they 
were honorably married, and many well-known New Orleans families ti'ace their 
origin back to the marriage of some gallant French gentleman with a lovely 
Fille de la Cassette. 

In 1758 the population was considerably augmented by the arrival of French 
refugees from the settlements on the upper Ohio, recently seized by the Brit_ 
ish. This required the addition of new barracks in the lower part of the city 
front, at a point afterwards known as Barracks street. 

The governor of that time, Kerlerec, expecting an attack from the British, 
began to preach an early gospel of preparedness by improving the fortifications 
of the city. The five forts were built up and strengthened, and i he con- 
necting parapet w^as made fifteen feet high, with a ditch sev'=!n feet in depth 
and forty feet wide. The ditch was filled with water. 

At this time what has been called the "Jesuit War" was being conducted 
between the Jesuits and the Capuchins, with considerable acrimony, and in July, 
1763, the Jesuits were expelled from Louisiana and from all French and Span- 
ish possessions. The famous papal edict of expulsion is among the archives 
in the State Museum. 


'Madame John's Legfacy." — See Page 41. 

Old Besidences in Rampart Street. 


In November, 1762, France transferred Louisiana to Spain, without consult- 
ing the people who were most deeply interested. There was great indignation, 
♦ajnd when the new Spanish governor, Don Antonio de Ulloa, arrived, he met 
with a cold reception. For some time there was no open outbreak, but in 
1768 a conspiracy, long and carefully planned, in which some of the leading 
citizens of New Orleans were engaged, revealed itself in open hostilities. At 
the head of the movement was Lafreniere, the attorney general; and other well 
known names of that time implicated with him were Foucault, Noyau and Bi- 
enville, nephews of the gallant founder of the city, Milhet, Caresse, Petit, 
Poupet, Villere — prominent merchants and planters. They spiked the guns at the 
Tchoupitoulas gate, at the upper side of the city, and entered the town. Ulloa 
and his troops fled to the Spanish frigate in the river and sailed for Havana. 

The Creoles then discussed a plan for forming a republic, ai;id sent dele- 
gates to the British-American colonies to form plans for an American colonial 
union. Before anything permanent could be effected, however, came another Span- 
ish governor with an Irish name; a man of very different character from the 
vanished Ulloa. This was Don Alexandre O'Reilly, who brought with him 3000 
picked Spanish troops, fifty pieces of artillery and twenty-four vessels. The 
Douisianians could make no stand against this overwhelming force. Twelve of 
the principals in the insurrection were arrested; six of them were shot in the 
French barracks, and the others imprisoned in Morro Castle, which has since 
attained such undesirable notoriety. 

On Good Friday, March, 1780, there was a great fire, which nearly destroyed 
the city. It began in Chartres street, near St. Louis, and swept away the cen- 
tral portion of the town, including the entire commercial quarter, the homes of 
the leading inhabitants, the city hall, the arsenal, the jail, the parish church 
and the quarters of the Capuchins. 

Six years later another fire started in Royal street, and in three hours 212 
dwellings and business houses in the heart of town had been destroyed. The 
pecuniary loss was estimated at $2,000,000 — an enormous loss for that time. Only 
two stores were left standing; and so many homes had been swept away that 
a large portion of the population was compelled to camp in the Place d'Armes. 

These destructive fires resulted in ultimate good, however, for Baron Caron- 
delet, who was then governor, offered a premium on roofs covered with tiles, 
and thus brought into use the tile roof, which was ope of the picturesque fea- 
tures of the old French quarter. Not only that — as the city was rebuilt, it was 
with better structures, which took on a Spanish type; adobe or brick walls, ar- 
cades, inner courts, ponderous doors and windows, balconies and white or yel- 
low lime-washed stucco. 

Not long after these conflagrations, Don Almonaster y Roxas, father of the 
Baroness Pontalba, began his benefactions. He had erected a row of brick build- 
ings on either side of the Place d'Armes, on the site now occupied by the Pon- 
talba buildings, put up a little later by the Baroness Pontalba; and he made 
of this the fashionable retail quarter of the town. He built a chapel for the 
nuns in Ursuline street. He erected a charity hospital in place of the original 
one, which was founded by a sailor in Rampart street. He erected a new 
church on the site of the one that had been burned, and this became the St. 
Louis Cathedral. He built the Hall of the Cabildo, to take the place of the town 
hall and the jail, which had been destroyed by the fire. 

About this time the French Market began its existence, and was known 
as the 'Halle de Boucheries." 

In 1791 Governor Carondelet began the excavation of the "Old Basin," which 
has its head near Beauregard Square; and of the canal connecting the basin 
with Bayou St. John. Carondelet used slave labor, and the enormous undertak- 
ing was completed in two years, connecting the lake with the heart of the 
city, and greatly extending the commerce of the new colony. 

In 1791 the influence of the Jacobins in France began to be felt in this 
far-away colony, which still considered itself a colony of France. Carondelet 
found it necessary to take the same precautions as if he had been holding the 
town of an enemy. In Nevi^ Orleans, then, they shouted for the "Marsellaise" 
at the theater, and sang the "Carmagnole" with the bravest of the Red Repub- 
licans. In this emergency, once more the forts and the parapets were rebuilt and 
strengthened, and guard duty was rigid to the last degree. 

In 1794 Etienne de Bore, whose plantation was in the upper reaches of the 
city of today, succeeded in not only producing sugar from the juice of the cane, 
but in producing $12,000 worth; and this began a long period of great prosperity 
for Louisiana. 

The export trade of and through New Orleans had already attained impor- 
tance, but in 1787 the first shipment of manufactured articles was sent from New 
Orleans up the river, to Kentucky. 

In 1793 the concession of an open commerce with Europe and America was 
given to New Orleans, and a number of Eastern merchants, quick to seize 
an opportunity, established branch houses in New Orleans. In the following year 
a treaty was signed a.t Madrid which declared the Mississippi free to the peo- 
ple of the United States, and New Orleans was made a port of deposit, free 
of any charge. 

And then, on October 1, 1800, Louisiana was transferred from Spain to France. 
France did not take formal possession, however, till March, 1803. Then the 




,_ ^i-^IW. 

vS^l,ri i--»«««£i'-f 

3ii J J 


«nvoy who came to prepare for the reception of the French general met instead 
a vessel from France with the news that Louisiana had been sold by France to 
the United States. Once, again, the flag that waved in the Place d'Armes was 
changed. First the flag of France had floated there; then it had been pulled 
down and the Spanish flag run up in its place; and then, hardly had the flag of 
France risen to the light again, when it was hauled down to make ^vay for the 
Stars and Stripes. Louisiana had been treated from the first as a chattel — some- 
thing to be bargained for and sold, and the people who braved the discomforts of 
life in the wilderness were never consulted in any way. 

It is to be remembered that the name Louisiana included all that portion 
between the Mississippi and the Rocky mountains, and w^as an empire in itself. 
One of the earliest known directories of the city, a little vest-pocket directory pub- 
lished about 1808, says, in French: "New Orleans is bounded on the east by the 
Floridas, on the south by the Gulf of Mexico, and on the north and west by the 
unknown lands." From this may be gathered how deep the w^ilderness really 
was during the first eighty years of the colony's existence; how deep was the 
isolation; how far the inhabitants must have felt themselves from their native 
land or the homes of their ancestors. 

From the time of the American sway, however, the city grew rapidly In 
wealth and importance. For many years the surrounding plantations were given 
over to the cultivation of indigo, which was a very valuable crop. Afterwards, 
when indigo ceased to be as valuable as it had been, sugar was there to take 
its place. The invention of the cotton gin and the availability of slave labor 
had combined to make cotton growing one of the most lucrative forms of farm- 
ing. Railroad building began — the little Pontchartrain railroad, which connects 
the city with the lake at Milneburg, constructed in 1830, being the second rail- 
road in the United States to be completed, and the first opened for general 
commerce; also the first railroad that ever used the raised freight platform. 
This road is still in active operation, and is the property of the Louisville and 
Nashville line. 

In 1818 the first steamboat f i om the upper rivers reached New Orleans. Be- 
fore that time the wharves had been crowded with scows and barges and flat- 
boats, which were floated down, laden with commerce, and were generally broken 
up and sold here for what they would bring, while the owners made their way 
upstream as best they could, to build other craft and bring them down, laden, 
and sell them in New Orleans. But the introduction of the steamboat opened the way 
rfor wonderful new^ things, and before many years the wharves were crow^ded with 
steamers, six or eight deep, waiting their turn to get near enough to unload, and 
New Orleans took on enormous prosperity. 

This may be said to have completed the history of old New Orleans, for with 
the coming of railroad trains and steamboats a new era had dawned. 


To write of New Orleans in such manner as to include the two centuries 
of its existence — to begin with the Indian trails from bayou to river and end 
with the great new enterprises of today and the magnificent plans for tomor- 
row — this should command the sure hand and the magic touch of" genius. A halo 
of romance, of daring and adventure, and the braving* of dangers and discomforts 
in a new land, surrounds the early beginnings of the city. To the middle of the 
last century belongs the time of great harvests, of a commerce that thronged and 
crowded the city, of immense prosperity, of elegant leisure and of social graces, 
such as — they tell us — we shall never see again. After this followed decades 
when the old city was struggling for her life, to arise slowly from the dust of 
defeat, to rehabilitate herself and to become the eager progressive city of today. 

New Orleans today is a city of great business enterprises, of sky-scrapers and 
manufactories, of paved streets, of schools and colleges, of a steadily increasing 
commerce, of railroads and docks, of warehouses and elevators. 

New Orleans is taking thought, not only of today, but of tomorrow, as well; 
and some of the greatest enterprises of her history are being planned, and will 
have their foundations laid deep and strong. 

There has been an enormous change, not only from the days of the Indian 
portage and the little French village that was planted in the wilderness, at the 
river end of the trail, but from the time when the river boats were crowded with 
aristocratic Southerners, coming dov/n with their families on neriodic pilgrimages, 
to put up at the old St. Louis or the old St. Charles Hc*tel, to attend the operas 
and balls and forget for awhile the ennui of plantation life. 

Ah, those were beautiful days, very old people will assure you — but there will 
never be more like them! That is ancient history. 

During the latter portion of the Nineteenth Century New Orleans was forced 
to carry her heaviest burdens, and to struggle on under her worst handicaps. The 
war had left her impoverished; the troubled years that succeeded the war left her 
still further torn and trampled and disorganized. It was not till this period had 
passed that she could even begin to arise from the dust of conflict and try to rein- 
state herself. 

And yet, it is in the years since then that New Orleans has done most to win 
the respect and admiration of the world. 


One of the m.ost important mileposts in her progress has been the elimination; 
of yellow fever. The knowledge which made this possible had to be won at the- 
cost of noble lives; but it was won; and the decree went forth that yellow fever 
was communicated by a certain mosquito; that this mosquito bred in the clear and 
still water of cisterns; that the cisterns must be screened to prevent the entrance- 
of the mosquito laying the egg. The city went still further; it established the 
finest filtration plant in the country, and gave the citizens a faultless water sup- 
ply, and then it decreed the abolition of cisterns. 

The end of the cistern has almost been reached. Within a short time, not one 
will be left in the city. Yellow fever might be brought to the city, but it could. 
not spread beyond the original case, because there would be none of the disease- 
carrying mosquitoes to carry it. 

It is difficult for the younger generation to realize the ravages of the yellow 
fever in the old days, when there was no knowledge as to its origin or its means 
of transmission. During the winter of 1852-3, Mayor Grossman had the swamp- 
between the lake and the city cleared out, in the belief that yellow fever was a 
malarial disease; and the press joyfully announced that the city had now put 
an end to yellow fever in New Orleans. But the next summer there was the 
most virulent epidemic the city had ever seen. There were so many victims that 
there were not coffins in which to bury them, nor men to dig the graves or open 
the tombs. Many instances were given, not only then, but in subsequent years, 
when entire families were swept away. One event is recorded when the mother 
was the only member left of a family of thirteen. 

This is one of the greatest victories ever won in New Orleans. 

Still later appeared a few cases of bubonic plague. It was established years 
ago that this disease was communicated through the medium, of fleas — the fleas- 
that infest rats. The thing to do was to abolish rats; and the state and the city 
joined hands with the United States government in destroying the city's large 
supply of rats. The slaughter was something worth recording — and the disease 
was eliminated. The city will have no more bubonic plague. 

Added to this are the great schools and colleges which have been planted in 
the city during the past half century; splendid institutions, of which New Orleans 
and the South are justly proud. Nowhere are there better opportunities for edu- 
cation in literature, in the sciences, in the learned professions than here in this 

In civic lines, this may be justly considered a new city. Along the river 
front there is a splendid line of wharves, with wonderful facilities for handlings 
freight. Huge warehouses for the accommodation of cotton and grain are nearing 
completion. The Public Belt Railroad has brought the traffic of the port within 
the lines of greatest efficiency. Many miles of paved streets have taken the 
place of the old mud roads; and every year is adding to the comfort and conven- 
ience of the city in many ways. Manufactories are springing up along the bor- 
ders. The great drydock is never without a ship undergoing repairs, and a line 
of others waiting to take her place. Shipbuilding plants are springing up within 
reach of this city. Paper mills are heard from in several directions. Everywhere 
one hears the roar of the wheels of traffic. New Orleans is filled with busy- 
people, intent on pushing the fortunes of this city as they never were pushed before. 


So many projects are in contemplation for this city that it would be difficult 
to enumerate all of them. One of the greatest plans is for the Industrial Canal, 
which is to connect lake and river, and which is to be available for all kinds 
of industrial enterprises. The river front cannot be touched by private capital, 
or bought or rented or leased by any individual whatever. It is proposed to have 
this great river-level canal within reach of private ownership so that a manufac- 
turer may build on its banks and may have the immense shipping advantage this 
would give him; having the Public Belt also at his back door, but wharves of 
his own at the front. It is a great enterprise, which the projectors believe would 
add immensely to the wealth and power of this city, and would promote manu- 
facturing interests as no other scheme could possibly do. 

The one thing which is doing more than most other things for New Orleans 
is the good roads movement. This is a movement that is being fostered by the 
Association of Commerce with every influence it can bring to bear; by the spoken 
word and the written, and it is said that the managers dream good roads on the 
rare occasions when they sleep. 


Two thousand miles of beautiful paved roads, extending from New Orleans 
to Winnepeg and beyond — already built or contracted for, with the money in hand 
to pay for every mile. , 

Thousands of miles running through every parish in this state and every other 
state; for the epidemic of road-building has spread like wildfire, and every parish 
is getting out bond issues, and the roads are extending in every direction like 
spiders' webs. 

The New Orleans-Houston Highway, to be bordered with palm trees throughout 
its entire length — a palm grove more than four hundred miles long. 



In three parishes alone $2,000,000 will be spent on good roads within the next 
half year! 

Farms are springing up along the good roads; for it is an inducement to a 
farmer to have a decent road over which to haul his produce to market. Orange 
groves and pecan orchards are being set out; and the whole country is developing. 

All this is due to the good roads. The good roads, incidentally, are due to the 
the gentleman who invented the automobile! 

The Infracostal Waterway is another of the dreams to be realized in the 
future. No country is so well supplied with waterways as Southern Louisiana, 
and the development of these waterways into a regular water road, sheltered 
from storms, and giving water transportation to an immense area, means more 
to this state than the ordinary citizen could well imagine. It is planned to extend 
this Inland Waterway along an immense stretch of coast, and to connect this 
city with the Rio Grande ultimately; taut if it were only a waterway from New 
Orleans to the Sabine, the state and the city would take on unheard-of prosperity. 

More miles of paving; a greater development of the Public Belt; more edu- 
cational advantages; a great annual fair; there is an infinite number of direc- 
tions in which New Orleans is stretching out tendrils and climbing further and 

New Orleans of the present we know, of some sort; but the New Orleans of 
the future, the city of great possibilities, the average citizen has not even dreamed. 

■ T^S' 

•^rw wniarf. 



B^^P^PP^He: j 




Bex Fag'eaut in Canal Street. 


Mardi Gras has seemed to the outside world so essentially a part of New Or- 
leans that it is difficult for strangers to realize that the pageants and festivities 
are the work of a few private clubs, designed to return many social courtesies and 
to show visitors what may tae termed a "good time." These clubs are the Rex, 
Proteus, Comus, Momus, Twelfth Night Revelers, Krewe of Nereus, Atlantlans, 
Elves of Oberon and others. Of these the organizations of Rex, Proteus and 
Momus give annual parades, always very brilliant and picturesque affairs; while 
the activities of the others usually are confined to beautiful and spectacular balls, 
"w^ith artistic and elaborate tableaux opening them. 


Mardi Gras Throng" in Canal Street. 


It was in 1827 that the first street procession of masqueraders was held in 
New Orleans. Those were the days when the young sons of wealthy familie?" 
must needs be sent to France for an education, and several of these young men 
just returned from Paris, started the movement which has since come to m«an s( 
much to New Orleans. 

In 1837 there was another procession, still more beautiful and elaborate, ani 
in 1839 still another that outshone the former one. The call to this celebration, 
published in "L'Abelle" (the Bee), requested all who desired to take part to meet 
at the Theatre d'Orleans; and gave the order of march; "From, Theatre d'Orleans, 
Royal street, St. Charles, Julia, Camp, Chartres, Conde, Esplanade, Royal." There 
was a grand mask and fancy-dress ball in the Salle d'Orleans, next to the theater 
of that namr. 

During the next few years there were several of these brilliant daylight proces- 
sions; but finally the day celebration of Mardi Gras passed out as a feature of New 
Orleans till the year 1852 had rolled around. Then it was announced that the day 
was to be celebrated in this city as it had never been celebrated before, and visitors 
came in from other sections of the country; the first time that New Orleans had 
drawn to her borders any considerable influx of "Mardi Gras visitors." 

The Orleans Theater was still the center of attraction. The maskers received 
their friend:* -here, and there was a bewildering ball to close the festivities. 

But it was left for Mobile to inaugurate the custom of sending floats moving 
along the streets — an innovation which started in 1831. It was not till 1857 that 
New Orleans adopted the idea, and then it was that an organization, known as the 
Mystick Kn-we appeared on the streets at night, presenting various tableaux. 
The streets were crowded with people, and the various floats were greeted with 
shouts of applause. The success of the affair was so marked that the Mystick 
Krewe has not failed to celebrate the coming of the Carnival season except when 
war or pestilence forbade. 

The second of the Carnival organizations, the Twelfth Night Revelers, came 
into existence in 1870, performing its mystic rites on the evening of January 6, or 
on the twelfth night after Christmas. This organization gives a beautiful ball on 
"Twelfth Night," but takes no part in the street pageants. 

Rex delayed his appearance until 1872. The organization was effected at first 
in order to r>ring all the maskers of the city together for the entertainment of the 
Grand Duk Alexis, who was the guest of the city that year, and who reviewed 
the procession from, the portico of the City Hall. Rex has made his annual visits 
ever since, and is called the "King of the Carnival." 

On the same occasion the Knights of Momus arrived for the first time, and 
have visited the city on every Mardi Gras. The Krewe of Proteus was organized 
in 1882, and not a year has passed without a brilliant contribution from this organ- 
ization to the splendors of Carnival. 

The Krewe of Nereus was added to the list in 1895, and the Nereus ball is one 
of the events of the Mardi Gras season. 

The Atlanteans, the Elves of Oberon, the High Priests of Mithras and other 
organizations mark the festal season with balls of unusual brilliancy and ex- 

In all these organizations it is accounted a great honor to be chosen Queen and 
to hold a place as Maid of Honor over the mimic court; and many a fair matron 
of today looks back with pride to the magic day when she wore the ermine and 
the jewels for a little while, and the world was hers for the asking. 

The great events of the Mardi Gras season are: Thursday evening, the Knights 
of Momus hold their pageant, which becomes more beautiful and more notew^orthy 
from year to year. The arrival of Rex, who comes up the river on the following 
Monday on the Royal Yacht, convoyed by the royal fleet, and who heads the 
magnificent nxilitary parade to the City Hall, where the Mayor bestows upon hinr 
the keys of the city. 

Monday night the Proteus parade is held; an occasion of the deepest interest 
for this pageant is always beautiful. Tuesday morning the Rex pageant makes it< 
way along streets that are thronged with spectators. As this is a "daylight 
parade unusual care is taken in the preparation of the floats, which must be 
adorned and constructed to bear the full light of day. 

Tuesday night comes ■what many consider the crowning event of the Carnival 
season — the great Comus parade, which is always a brilliant spectacle. 

The balls follow the parades; and with the Comus ball and the Rex ball, both 
ccurring on Tuesday night, the Carnival closes. Rex and his court appear at both 
these functions. Midnight brings on Ash Wednesday and the beginning of Lent. 


In this city. Canal street is the one great thoroughfare. Everything goes to 
Canal street. All the street cars make that a part of their pilgrimage — that is, all 
but one. "Sou may stand at some corner in Canal street, between Bourbon and 
the river, and take any car for any part of the city. Among all the street car 
systems of all the cities, it is believed that this is the best, the most easily com- 
prehended and always the most convenient. If you are lost, anywhere, take a 




car — no matter which one — and you will get back to Canal street. There is not 
even any danger of destruction under the wheels of those thronging cars. All the 
cars on the south, or uptown side of the neutral ground, or going toward the 
river, and those on the north side are going away from the river, and there 
you are! 

t The street begins — or ends— with the river. If you go up the long slant to 
the river bank you will look out upon a busy scene. The ferry landing is there, 
and one of the favorite amusements of visitors is to take the ferry and ride half 
a day, drinking in the river breeze and watching the river sights by day or night — 
and all for ten cents! Across the river is Algiers, an over-the-river suburb of 
New Orleans, and a very important town, as it has become a great manufacturing 

The upward slant to the river is part of the levee system which protects this 
city in time of high water. When the first colonists established themselves on the 
banks of the river, they soon found that they must begin to throw up earthworks 
to protect themselves from overflow. The floods, privileged to spread at all points, 
were not as formidable then as now. Year by year, the embankments have been 
raised higher and higher, and the whole course of the Mississippi is guarded by 
embankments of which this slope in Canal street is a part. The time has been 
when men were paddling boats around up to Kourbon in Canal street, but the 
flood came in from the back, for a crevasse above the city had flooded the swamps 
and sent the waters up into the city. Nothing in the United States is more won- 
derful than the great levee system along the Mississippi, taking into consideration 
the enormous amount of money it involves, the enorm,ous toil required to produce 
it, and the everlasting watchfulness required to keep back the floods; and it all 
presents a problem which some of the greatest engineers in the country are study- 
ing with a determination to solve it. In the meantime, New Orleans itself is so 
well protected that not one of her citizens contemplates "higher water" with any 

Not far from the levee is a small triangular park, which some of the street 
cars circle around at the river end of their journey, and in the middle of which 
stands what is known as the "Fourteenth of September Monument," or "the Lib- 
erty Monument. This little shaft was erected in honor of the men who were 
killed near here on September I'i, 1874, in a determined effort to snatch the control 
of the city from negro police and the Radical administration. Twenty-four men 
were killed here; including General A. S. Badger, and 116 were wounded. This 
battle was only one of the incidents in the long struggle for freedom during those 
years, but this closed some of the worst of the oppression under which the citizens 
had been suffering. 


Not far from Liberty Place, in Canal street, stands an enormous gray build- 
ing — the Customhouse. It occupies an entire block — a site on which some kind of 
customhouse stood during the early history of the city; and it is worthy of note 
that it then stood almost on the bank of the river. Ever since then the river has 
been busily building up the "batture" with silt taken from other points, and the 
"batture" has grown in width from year to year. 

The first customhouse was burned in the great fire of 1788, and then Governor 
Miro ereet'ed a better structure. Carondelet, coming on the scene later, swept away 
everything that was on the site and built Fort St. Louis there, covering the entire 
block. When the Americans came upon the scene, in their turn, they had no 
use for forts, so they demolished old Fort St. Louis and built a brick courthouse 
in the middle of the block. A bethel stood alongside. In 1848 both of these were 
removed; this site was chosen as a customhouse; the site was ceded to the United 
States, and the work of building began. The war intervened and years passed 
before it was even approximately finished and the upper floor has never been com- 
pleted. General Beauregard had the technical supervision of the building — he was 
then major of engineers, and it is said that the cornerstone was laid by Henry Clay. 

The foundations prepared for this huge structure will be a matter of interest 

to people of the present day, who are accustomed to seeing deep-driven piles made 

ready for any large structure, and steel and reinforced concrete used to strengthen 
every part. 

The foundations rest upon a plank floor seven feet below the sidewalk, upon 
which is a grillage of 12-inch logs, covered by a layer of concrete one foot deep! 

And yet the building is there! It has sunk only a foot or two — one end a little 
further than the other. It has not gone down to China, as one would have ex- 
pected of a massive building erected on a foundation of planks and logs seven feet 
deep, in the marshy soil of old New Orleans. 

The marble staircase and the beautiful Marble Hall on the second floor have 
attracted great attention. In its time this Marble Hall was considered the hand- 
somest business room in the world. It was designed for true Sons of Anak, one 
would think, as it is fifty-four feet from floor to ceiling. 

In 1883 some changes were made in the ground floor to accommodate the post- 
office; but a few years since the postoffice was moved to the magnificent struc- 
ture in Camp street, facing Lafayette Square, and since then the gray old building 
in Canal street has been used as a customhouse alone. The government is soon to 
expend large sums in modernizing the old structure to suit present needs. 



Scene in Canal Street. 

'Marble Hall" in tlie Customhouse. 



For a number of blocks on either side of Canal street, beginning at the Louis- 
ville and Nashville passenger station, there are business houses of many kinds, 
including some of the finest department stores in the South. A few squares beyond 
the Terminal Station, in Canal and Basin, a very beautiful residence section sets la. 
and continues almost to the cemeteries. On the way, however, one finds the 
Beauregard School, one of the best of the grammar grade buildings, and the Boys' 
High School, recently erected — a building of which the city may well be proud. 

Canal street ends at the cemeteries; a number of which are grouped at this 
end of the city. Among these, perhaps the most notable is Metairie Cemetery, 
which covers the site of the famous Metairie Race Course, once the most noted 
racing park in the United States. Other beautiful cemeteries in this group are 
St. Patrick's, Nos. 1 and 2; the Firemen's; Greenwood; the Jewish cemeteries; 
Cypress Grove Cemetery, and the cemeteries of the Odd Fellows and Masons. 

Beyond the cemeteries Canal street is continued in Canal Boulevard, a thorough- 
fare as yet little developed, that runs through to Lake Pontchartrain. 

There are many other cemeteries, in various parts of the city, most of them 
simple squares, walled in with high brick walls; and against every wall are built 
what are called the "oven" tombs, each with a room for one coffin. The custom 
of burying in tombs above ground originated in the marshy character of the soil 
which caused any excavation to fill with water in a little while. The drainage 
and sewerage of the city during recent years have lowered the w^ater level until 
now it is five or six feet below the level of the streets, and it is probable that 
the above-ground burials will be gradually done away with. 


In Canal between Royal and Bourbon, once stood a row of four-story brick 
buildings called the Touro Buildings. Most of them are gone now, but those w^hich 
remain are vieyved with interest because their ow^ner was a certain Jew named Ju- 
dah Touro, who, after the manner of his kind, gave largely to many causes. T.he 
Touro Infirmary, the Touro-Shakspeare Almshouse and many, other institutions 
have the name of Touro inscribed on marble tablets as a memento of his great 
love for mankind. It was he who purchased from the Episcopal Church the origi- 
nal Christ Church, at Canal and Bourbon, and gave it to his own people for a syna- 
gogue. The building was afterward demolished, as the congregation moved to 
Carondelet street, but it was reproduced in every line as closely as possible, and 
stands there today, though the congregation has moved still further uptown. The 
building was sold, after their removal, to the Knights of Columbus. 

The building at Canal and Royal occupies the site of Touro's home. 


The St. Louis Cathedral faces Jackson Square, and- beside the cathedral on 
the south side runs a narrow, paved alleyway, called Orleans Alley. Next above 
Orleans Alley stands the Cabildo. 

There is no other building in New Orleans which possesses the interest for 
the tourist that is held by the old Cabildo. 




Courtyard of the Cabildo. 

This site was occupied by a small guardhouse and a prison when the first 
structures in the new town were erected. Then, when the Spanish gained posses- 
sion of the new territory, and Governor O'Reilly began to rule with an iron 
hand, a new building was erected here in which the Cabildo instituted by him 
held its meetings. In 1788 this building was burned, and in 1795 Don Alexander 
Almonaster y Roxas, who did so much for the little city in which he had chosen 
to make his home, erected the Cabildo of today and presented it to the munici- 
pality. The principal change that has been made in the building is the substitu- 
tion of the incongruous Mansard roof for the tiled roof which covered it at first; 
and the loggia that ran along the second story, in the front, has been closed in 
with glass, to give more room. 

The visitor will notice the exceeding thickness of the walls, and the arched 
windows, all of the Spanish type of architecture. The interior of the building 
has been changed very little; and in the main room on the second floor, knov^n 
as the Sala Capitular, the same floor has been preserved in good order to this 
day. It was in this great room that the ceremonies connected with the transfer 
of Louisiana from Spain to France and from France to the United States took 
place. "• 

In this room, also, the first Protestant Church services ever held in Louisiana 
were conducted. The Protestants of the city were invited to meet and decide 
by a majority vote what denomination should have a church erected. Tne 
Episcopalians were in the majority. Bishop Chase officiated at the services; 
all the other Christians of the city joined with the Episcopalians, and eventually 
the first church was built in Canal street, at Bourbon — known afterwards as 
Christ Church. 

It was in the Cabildo, too, that Lafayette was entertained, this great apartment 
having been most lavishly fitted up for his use. 

"When Louisiana passed into the hands of the United Stales, in 1803, the 
building became the city hall, and was afterwards the administrative headftuarters 
of the first municipality. Still later it became the Supreme Court headquarters. 


The French Marbet. 

Fruit Stand in the French Market, 


After the battle of September 14, 1874, the Reconstruction forces took refuge in 
the Cabildo. It was surrounded by citizens, who waited for dawn to begin their 
attack on this fortress; but at dawn the ganison surrendered, so that there was 
no further need for fighting. Once again during the following year the people 
rose against the Reconstruction government and surrounded the Cabildo; but the 
garrison charged, a battle was fought at Chartres and St. Peter, and the at- 
tacking party was repulsed. 

Other interesting events in connection with this historic building were the 
reception was given here to President McKinley, in 1901; and the celebration of the 
centennial of the Louisiana Purchase, in 1903. In 1910 the Cabildo was formally 
turned pver to the State Museum. 


The very heart of "downtown" is Jackson Square, that iron-railed block of 
ground, green with beautiful verdufe, and with the famous equestrian statue of 
General Jackson occupying the center. The beautifying of the old square may 
be laid at the door of Almonaster's daughter, the Baroness de Pontalba. It was 
she who built the two long Pontalba buildings flanking the square on either side; 
the buildings which were to house all kinds of business enterprises on the first 
floor and to make beautiful residences on the second and third floors. The old 
buildings have long been deteriorating, but they m.ust have been beautiful in 1849, 
when they were new and fine, and when they were still trying to hold the busi- 
ness section of New Orleans downtown, in spite of the opening of the Faubourg 
Ste. Marie and the wonderful developments south of Canal street. One will notic« 
the beautiful iron railings in front of all the balconies and even at the attic 
windows, with the interwoven initials, "A-P." 

It was in 1845, while her property was still largely undeveloped, that she re- 
turned to New Orleans and found herself looking out at the ragged old Place 
d'Armes, and began her work of beautifying it. It was she who had it laid out in 
French style, and planted with flowers. 

It was her interest which aroused the interest of others. A society was formed 
which bega'n 'ralsiulg -va fund for a monument to the hero of New Orleans, and 
$30,000 was accumulated. Clark Mills, the sculptor, designed the far-famed monu- 
ment, which was unveiled in 1856; and the name of the Place d'Armes was changed 
to Jackson Square. 

For almost a century and a half it had been the Place d'Armes. and had 
passed through stirring scenes. It was here that the Filles de la Cassette landed 
and were received by the gentle Ursulines. This was the rallying place of the 
citizen soldiery who went out to fight Indians in the wars against the Natchez, 
the Yazoo, the Choctaw and the Chickasaw. Here the people assembled to express 
their bitter indignation against being sold as chattels to Spain. It was here that 
they greeted the French flag with immense rejoicing when it took the place of the 
hated flag of Spain, and here they greeted with amazem.ent and with little pleasure 
the Stars and Stripes which ran up in place of the French banner. It was a drill- 
ground for the troops in the garrison, a lounging-place for the idle young men, a 
promenade in the evenings for the pretty girls, abundantly chaperoned. Every im- 
portant event that took place in the old city was in some way staged at the 
Place d'Armes — now Jackson Square. 


For many years the French Market has been one" feature of old New Orleans 
in which visitors have been keenly interested. No visitor thinks of leaving New 
Orleans without making at least one tour through the French Market, so that she 
may be able to describe it to her friends at home, who listen enviously to her 
experiences. And she will not visit the market without sitting down on a stool 
before an oilcloth-covered counter or table, and drinking a cup of black coffee, 
which, she has been told, carries a flavor of its own. 

A market building was erected on this side by the Spaniards about the year 
1791; for the city was always filled with vendors of food; the Indians with their 
fish and game, and the German truck growers from up the coast, so that a place 
was needed where they could dispose of what they had and the people could as- 
semble to buy. This first building, was destroyed by a severe storm in 1812, but 
it was too necessary to the little city to be dispensed with. The city surveyor, 
J. Piernas, set about making plans for another market, and the first of the build- 
ings now composing the French Market, the one at St. Ann and the levee, was 
constructed. This was the m,eat market, or Halle de Boucherires. The vegetable 
market was added some years later; and now there are several of the long buildings, 
with heavy columns supporting the roofs. 

The French Market is greatly changed from the old days, partly by the fact 
that other markets have been established all over the city, drawing away a great 
part of the ancient custom; and partly by the strides of progress. The meat market 
is now screened and modernized so that an old acquaintance would hardly recog- 
nize it, and is in keeping with the demands of the times. But there are certain 
things which have never changed. One of these is the immense variety of 
products which are always on sale in the market; and another is the picturesque 
manner in which the fruit and vegetable stalls are arranged. The French and 
Italians have an eye for artistic designs, and the stalls are a picture to delight 
an artist. 



In the Sacristy, St. I^ouis Cathedral. 


The site where the Cathedral now stands was set aside for ecclesiastical pur- 
poses when the city was first laid out; and at a very early day some kind of 
church was erected there. The first building was destroyed by a storm within a 
year or two after the founding of the infant colony, but was later rebuilt. In one 
of the great fires which swept over the city fifty years later, this second structure 
was burned. 

It was Don Almonaster y Roxas, the wealthy Spaniard, who built on the old 
site the St. Louis Cathedral as it stands today, and gave it to the parish, a free 
offering. There are many objects of historic interest connected with the Cathe- 
dral, among them being the tombs of the Marignys, which lie beneath the floor, 
in front of the altar, the names almost obliterated by the tread of thousands of 
passing feet. 

Back of the Cathedral is the plot of ground known as St. Anthony's Close, 
once a grove where an occasional duel was fought; and it was here that the 
gallants of that old time met to idle and to smoke and gossip. The trees have 
been cut down, now, to make room for a building known as the "temporary Cathe- 
dral," for use while the original building is undergoing extensive repairs. 


On the north side of the Cathedral runs St. Anthony's Alley, and beyond that 
is a building that corresponds in appearance with the Cabildo. It is known as 
the Presbytery. Bienville, in laying out the city, set aside this place for ecclesi- 
astical purposes, and to this place came the Capuchin priests to whom he turned 
over the spiritual affairs of the young city. A presbytery was ei'ected some years 
later more in accordance with their needs and in 1813 the ground was sold to 
the municipality, the presbytery was torn down and the present edifice was con- 
structed — a copy of the Cabildo, but far from being as well-built a structure. The 
building was intended for the use of the Civil District Courts, which retained pos- 
session of it until 1910, when they were transferred to the new courthouse in Royal 
street; and this building, as well as the Cabildo, was given over to the use of the 
State Museum. 




Busy workmen demolishing an old structure — that is all one sees of what was 
once the center of brilliant society, of wealth and gaiety and distinction in the old 
days wLen the. past century had but half lived out its 'ime. This pile of debris, 
this vacant space, used to be the Hotel Royal, and still further back it was the 
Hotel St. Louis. For year-3 ihe building, once so fine and so much admired, has 
been falling ii;to decay, shedding scraps and fragments from its long galleries 
and from its lintels with every pa&sing breeze. Si .ice the now court building was 
erected just the street, in all its marble granr'eur, the old laotpl has-: looked 
still more sc.ualid and forlorn, and it seemed there was nothing to do but 
it down and remove the last tracr of its unhappy oqualor. 

Before there was a hotel at ail on this site, tlie old City Exchange was founded 
in 1838. The original building was burned and another set up in its place, and 
that, too, was destroyed in 1851. 

Then came the building just demolished, which was called, as recently as thir- 
teen years ago, "the present imposing structure." By this time the propert'j' had 

Royal Street Iiookingf North from Canal Street. 

passed into the hands of the Citizens' Bank, and it is to be mentioned that this 
bank continued to own the hotel "most of the time for many years, as they re- 
peatedly sold it, but it was not paid for and they were compelled to take it back. 

This building has been associated with many of the gayest and most brilliant 
social events which ever transpired in old New Orleans, and that in a day when 
society was at its best. Here were given the annual balls, the most brilliant af- 
fairs ever given in the United States. Here was given the great masquerade ball, 
during the winter of 1842-43, and that same winter is memorable as the time in 
which the friends of Henry Clay gave a great dinner in his honor, and the price 
every guest had to pay was $100. There was immense excitement over this func- 
tion, and the number who could attend was limited to two hundred; therefore, many 
were the heart-burnings and disappointments. 

There came a time, some years later, when the old hotel played an important 
part in the troubled history of the state immediately following the Civil war, when 
it was the storm center around which eddied a whirlpool of contending forces; 
a Republican and Reconstruction administration doing its best to keep the citizens 



of New Orleans down, and the citizens of New Orleans, not to be kept down by 
any possible power. 

Iji 1874, the New Orleans National Building Association was organized, ostensi- 
bly to run the hotel, but ultimately to sell it to the government. That same year 
the Kellogg government leased the hotel and soon after took possession of it and 
declared it to be the State House. 

Never did State House have such a history! 

In September of that year a conamittee of citizens attempted to enter the 
hotel and force the resignation of Kellogg, but the building was filled with armed 
men who made an effectual barricade. 

On the morning of September 13, a call appeared in the papers for the people 
to assemble at the Clay statue in Canal street — the rallying point for the people 
on many memorable occasions — and declare that men "ought to be and mean to 
be free." 

Next, morning the stores, with few exceptions, did not open, for everyone real- 
ized that a crisis was at hand. Men began to assemble around the Clay statue at 

Courtyard in the French Quarter. 

an early hour, until several thousand had gathered at the monument, ready for 
whatever might come. Resolutions were adopted, calling upon Kellogg to abdicate, 
end a committee was sent to deliver them. 

The committee found the State House barricaded. Kellogg refused to receive 
them. When this was reported to the meeting, still waiting the turn of events at 
Clay statue, the men were told to go home, arm themselves and return. 

Two cases of arms for the "Wiiite League had been brought to the city the day 
before and were still on the boat. The White League assembled and inarched 
to the levee to secure the arms, but they were met on the levee by the Metropoli- 
tan Police. A pitched battle ensued, the center of w^hich is marked by the Sep- 
tem.ber monument in Canal street. The police lost forty killed and two hundred 
wounded, while the citizens lost nineteen killed and about as many wounded. 

The police retreated and the White League prepared for an assault on the State 
House; but before they had an opportunity a white flag was run up and the gar- 
rison surrendered. It was found, however, that Kellogg and his officers were 
not there, and that they had taken refuge in the customhouse. 



In every parish in the state there were uprisings, for men had been waiting for 
this signal; and by evening of the next day there was no Kellogg administration. 

The triumph of the citizens was short-lived, however. On the morning of Sep- 
tember 17 a formal demand for the surrender of the State House was made by 
the United States troops, and the city was declared under martial law. The build- 
ing was surrendered and a few days later Kellogg was reinstated. 

On January 4, 1875, the Legislature met. Expecting trouble, United States 
troops were lined up in the streets. The Democratic members, by whirlwind tac- 
tics, elected "Wiltz temporary chairman, and immediately pandemonium broke forth. 
United States troops invaded the hall and deposed him, and again the State House 
was in possession of Kellogg. 

The principal incident of the following year was the meeting of the returning 
board, which assembled in the State House and compiled the returns which made 
Hayes President. 

n W 

Orleans Alley. 

In January 1877, the Legislature met, and the Democratic members, duly elected, 
marched to the building and were refused admission. Nothing daunted, they went 
to St. Patrick's Hall and organized. On the 8th, Governor Francis T. Nicholls 
and Lieutenant Governor Wiltz were sworn in, and the state had two Legislatures. 
The Republican legislators, who had possession of the State House, evidently did 
not consider that the temper of the people was altogether conciliatory, for they 
never left the building, day or night. The citizen soldiers, under the command of 
Governor Nicholls, took possession of all the public buildings in the city, except the 
one-time State House, and installed Democratic officers. Moreover, the officers 
rfcognized by Nicholls were inducted into office in all the parishes. 

The siege of the State House continued for two months. During that time 
eight or nine hundred men were barricaded in this building. The place became in- 
describable, and, eventually, smallpox broke out. 

On March 3, President Grant ordered the troops to keep their hands off; and 
this was followed on April 21 by an order for the troops to be removed. The 


building was deserted, but it was scarcely fit for use. It was given up as a State 
House and the capital was removed to Baton Rouge. 

The decay of the historic building set in, but some years later it was repaired 
and started out in life again as the Hotel Royal. It was found that it could not 
be made a paying venture. The march of events had been too swift. The traveling 
public would not be satisfied with hotels that were not fireprooC and modern in 
every way. The building was deserted for the last time, and it finally became 
a charity to tear down the old walls and cart the rubbish away. 

It has not been altogether given over to destruction, however, even yet. Presi- 
dent Edenborn, of the Red River Navigation Company, has bought the ancient 
facade and the beautiful columns, and will use them to front the new station for 
his line. 

Old citizens will never be quite reconciled to the loss of this hotel. They 
will recall the splendid leap of the great dome, the largest unbroken dome in the 
world, from the ground to the topmost arch, which immortalized DePouilly, the 
greatest architect of his time; the frescoes in the dome, by Canova; the great din- 
ing room; the wide halls; all the wonderful building which was the pride and 
delight of the city in the old days. There is no architecture like that now, they 
will assure you. A great deal has been carried away from the city along with the 
loads of debris, and the older citizens are not to be comforted. 


One of the most interesting houses in the downtown section stands at 514 
Chartres street — interesting because so many great dreams were embodied in the 
building and furnishing of it. A lonely prisoner, watching from the heights of a 
locky island, was to be rescued and brought to the new land, and here he was to 
be free, a distinguished guest, with a home already prepared for him. The yacht 
was already built that was to bring him to the new land; as swift a vessel as could 
be devised, which would spread its white wings and fly faster than the enemy 
could follow. The daredevil crew was recruited, ready to set about any enter- 
prise that could be devised. The leader of the dashing vessel was to be Dominic 
You, who had stood beside Lafitte in many a daring sea raid, and who did not 
know the meaning of fear. It was Nicholas Girod who had planned the wonder- 
ful enterprise, and who had the new home ready for the fallen Emperor Napoleon. 
The building he had erected was a remarkably handsome one for those days, 
and the furnishings were of the richest that money could buy. 

But alas, another raider (death) captured the captive and carried him away 
before the swiftest yacht could reach him; and the building stands there today, 
the monument of a beautiful dream that never came true. 


One of the old houses of the downtown section is the Old Absinthe House, at 
the corner of Bienville and Bourbon. This building was erected in 1798, for 
quite a different purpose, one may believe. The Nineteenth Century had passed 
its first quarter before it began to be a saloon; but, having once started, it was 
known as a place where one might always get a glass of the green liquid which 
went to the wrecking of many fortunes and of still more constitutions. 


In Chartres street, at St. Philip, the two Lafitte brothers, Jean and Pierre, 
were said to have had their blacksmith shop up to 1810, and perhaps later. Among 
all the names of all the pirates since there were pirates a-t all, the name of 
Lafitte was for many years a name to conjure with. A thousand tales of their 
dark and bloody deeds were extant in those old days; and it would be impossible 
to enumerate the captured ships and the plundered holds that were put down 
to their credit, much less the enormous quantities of treasure they carried away 
with them from these swift forays. As for the hiding-places in which Lafitte's 
treasure was buried, they extended all along the gulf coast, and were situated 
on all the islands and along all the rivers and lakes within fifty miles of the 
sea. The Barataria section, especially, was planted with Lafitte gold from end 
to end, in popular legend; for it was at Barataria that they made their head- 
quarters. In all their operations, the British had been their special prey, and 
perhaps the city founded by Bienville was not averse to the work of the daring 
privateers, for feeling ran high against the British. But at last, not long before 
the Battle of New Orleans, Jean Lafitte volunteered for service under General 
Jackson. The offer was accepted, and Lafitte and his crew of dare-devil spirits 
did valiant service for America in the battle. No doubt Lafitte felt that this 
should have secured him immunity in his piracy, but the government kept such 
a close watch on him that he was forced to retire from Barataria, and after this 
he made Galveston his headquarters, and so established a new set of burial places 
for his treasure. 



United States Mint. 


In Esplanade aA'enue, near the river, stands a massive structure, the United 
States Mint. It occupies tlie aite of old Fort San Carlos, vk^hich guarded the 
new city in the wilderness at its northeastern angle. Here stood the fort, and 
the cannon looked out over the river; here ran the moat, filled with water; 
and here hung the drawbridge, which gave to the young New Orleans the ap- 
pearance of a very ancient city, wholly out of place in the New World. Here, 
on a parapet of the fort, Andrew Jackson stood and reviewed the little army 
that was ready to go down to Chalmette and to victory. The fort fell into de- 
cay; and in 1821 it was dismantled. In 1835 the city conveyed the ground to 
the United States for the construction of a mint, with the proviso that if the 
site should ever be used for other purposes it should revert to the city. This 
stipulation was afterwards removed, however. The structure was completed in 
1838 at a cost of more than three million dollars — a huge building, 828 feet long 
by 108 feet in depth. 

For many years large quantities of coin were turned out here, and the tiny 
"O" beneath the be?.d of the virgin Liberty bears testimony to the origin of the 
coins the New Orleans mint sent on their journey through the virorld. 

One of the interesting stories in connection with this old building is that 
of the great ball that was given here years before the war, by the out-going 
director of the mint, who wished to give a dazzling social close to his regime 
as mint master. Mrs. Eliza Ripley, an old citizen of New Orleans, gave an in- 
valuable account of tha,t ball, of the men and women who attended it, and 
of their subsequent histories. Never, surely, was a ball given in such a place, 
or amid such surroundings. 

During the Civil war, and up to 1878, specie coinage here was suspended. 
Afterwards when the coinage started again, it was cut down a little more every 
year until finally it ceased altogether; the coins deposited there were removed, 
and the mint ceased to be a mint. For several years the building has been stand- 
ing idle. 

It was at the front of this building that General Butler hanged William Mum- 
ford, during the Civil war, on the charge of having torn down the United States 
flag from the building, after the United States army had taken possession of the 


At Bourbon and Toulouse stands the French Opera House, the scene of such 
wonderful artistic triumphs as no other American city has known, and of such 
enthusiasm as only New Orleans, a city of music-lovers, could ever show. The 
opera house was erected in 1859, from designs made by James Gallier, the younger. 
The old city was full of magnificent buildings designed by the Galliers, father 


and son, who were among the most renowned of many distinguished architects 
who made New Orleans their home during the past century. 

In 1859 Boudousquie, the manager who had been conducting opera at the 
old Orleans Theater, formed a French Opera Association, with a capital of $100,- 
000, and the site was purchased and the present building erected. The building 
was formally opened in December, with ''Guillaume Tell," and it is remembered 
that opera alternated with drama for several years. As time went on, many of 
the most noted singers of the world were heard in the French Opera House; and 
among these was Patti. During the Civil war the house was closed, but in '66 
it reopened, and the new director was on his way from France with a large com- 
pany of artists on board the "Evening Star." The ship was lost, and the entire 
troupe perished. Among those who went down were James Gailier, the architect 
who had designed the opera house, and his wife. 

L. Placide Canonge, Max Strakosch and deBeauplan were among the succeed- 
ing directors; and there were many years of most successful opera, through which 
New Orleans became kjiown as the opera city. 

The French Opera season nas always been the gala time from a social stand- 
point; and nowhere is there a more alluring scene ttian the glittering horseshoe 
of boxes, filled with wealth and fashion. It must be said, however, that very 
many of the most devoted music-lovers are in the upper galleries, where they 
struggle for seats and drink in the music with tears and wild applause, such as 
would not be considered "proper" on the more fashionable seats below. 

It is to be noted that visitors to the city have always considered New Orleans 
music mad, even from the times when opera was given in the old Orleans Theater. 
There was no cutting of the great operas then; and people went to the performance 
at 6 in the evening, and left the opera to attend midnight mass at the Cathedral. 
It is doubtful if anyone can be found who loves music to that extent now; but at 
any rate, one will hear the boys in the streets and the negroes on the levae whis- 
tling bars from some tuneful opera w^ithout slurring one liquid note. 

The outbreak of the world war prevented the coming of French troupes and 
the Opera House was running to neglect when it was purchased by an anonymous 
benefactor and was presented to the Tulane University in order that it rnight 
remain forever a temple of art and not fall into less worthy uses. With the gift 
went also an important sum of money to put the fine old structure into perfect 


There is nothing like the genius of the novelist for inaking one see the things 
of fancy as far more real than the grim facts that are before one's bodily vision. 
In Dumaine street, on the upper side, betAveen Royal and Chartres, stands a very 
old house, with wide porches and dormer windows. Cable made it the home of 
Madame John, in "Old Creole Days"; and set it aside from all the old city as the 
legacy left the quadroon woman by Monsieur John, of the "Good Children Social 
Club." It was up those stairs to the room with the dormer window that " 'Tite 
Poulette" ran in frantic haste when she had been frightened by the manager of 
the dance hall, and it was outside this wide balcony that the young German 
interfered to save her from insult. It is one of the prerogatives of genius to 
make a place like this, which may have had no romance connected with it in 
actual truth, the most interesting and romantic of the old buildings in the Vieux 


Every visitor who comes to New Orleans expresses a desire to see the Haunted 
House, and journeys down to Bourbon and Hospital streets to behold it. Hearts 
are thrilled and blood runs cold at the hearing of the story connected with this old 
building; and with good reason, for it is the story of fiendish cruelty such as no 
one has ever been able to understand. 

Madame Lalaurie was the name of the woman who figured in that old build- 
ing. There was a Monsieur Lalaurie, also, but he does not figure in the story, 
except as the husband of Madame Lalaurie. These two acquired possession of 
the building in 1813 and their home became a kind of social center for the 
aristocrats of those old days. They were wealthy, refined, and had great influence 
in their circle. They entertained Lafayette when he visited the city in 1825, and 
there was no hint or suspicion on the part of any of their numerous guests, during 
a number of years, that they were not what they seemed, and that there was 
a secret closet somewhere about the house that contained an exceedingly grizzly 
family skeleton. 

It was a fire that led to the ghastly exposure. The fire occurred on April 10, 
1834, starting on the upper floor. The old Volunteer Fire Department went to 
the rescue, and invaded that chamber of horrors. In the attic they discovered 
seven negro slaves, all of them mutilated and suffering torments, some of them 
chained to wretched pallets or to the walls, and some of them almost dead from 

Madame Lalaurie, the refined, the aristocratic, the exquisite chatelaine, had 
been in the habit of torturing her slaves in her leisure hours, just for the pleasure 
of seeing them suffer! With the manner and appearance of a fine lady, she was 
a demon, worse than the ghoul of fiction! 

The people of the old city knew how to deal with such an emergency. They 
took the victims to the mayor's office, and there one of the women confessed that 
she had set fire to the building to end her sufferings. The searchers through 
the house came upon instruments of torture, borrowed from the Inquisition; among 
them iron collars with spiked inner sides and sharp edges. True, there were 
times when the slaves died under the torture, but what would you? Slaves were 



Door of the Haunted House, Boyal Street. 

Then it was that the mob collected. They did not succeed in overtaking 
Madame Lalaurie, for she had already escaped through a side door, and had fled 
to a ship and thence to France. It is said that the torturer of slaves became very 
charitable, in her later years; but there may be a question as to the effectiveness 
of her charity. 

In the meantime, the mob gutted the Lalaurie home, tearing from it every- 
thing that was movable, and burning it in bonfires in the street. 

The place is now occupied by a saloon; but there ie an agreeable tradition 
that it is haunted by the restless spirits of the tortured slaves — who should really 
have been the last to revisit it- — and that has added greatly to its interest. ' 


The upper portion of the block between Hospital and Ursuline streets, facing 
on Chartres, contains St. Mary's Church and what has long been known as the 
Archiepiscopal Palace. It was the home of several archbishops in turn. Arch- 
bishop Janssens resided there until his death; but he was the last who looked 
upon this old structure as his home. A new residence in Esplanade avenue was 
presented to Archbishop Chapelle soon after his accession to the archbishopric. 
(It was there that Monseigneur Chapelle died of yellow fever during the final 
epidemic of that disease.) 

But long before its passing into the keeping of the archbishops this old struc- 
ture had gathered around it a halo of romantic memories. This was the building 
that was erected for the Ursuline nuns, the work beginning in 1727, and the build- 
ing having been completed in 1734. This is said to be the oldest building in the 
Mississippi Valley. Visitors are interested in the hand-wrought iron railings of 
the old stairway and in the stairs themselves, the steps of which are composed of 
solid blocks of wood. This, with the thickness of the walls, shows that the convent 
was intended to withstand the inroads of time; and the splendid condition of the 
building today bears testimony to the builders of those days ajid their faithful 
dealing with the public. The nuns occupied this building for ninety-four years. 



The time came when the adjoining property, owned by them, became so valuable 
that they disposed of all their holdings except the convent, and went down the 
river, where their beautiful buildings and grounds long constituted one of the 
objects of interest. The encroachments of the river made it necessary to move the 
levees further back and sacrifice part of the grounds, a few years ago; and then 
it was that the Ursulines moved to their present beautiful home in State street. The 
Ursulines have always belonged to the teaching sisterhoods, and many a fair young 
Creole maiden, as well as multitudes of other American girls, owe their education 
to the sisters who began their work in the village of La Nouvelle Orleans so many 
year3 ago. 

St. Anthony of Padua Church. 


At the corner of Rampart and Contl stands the old Church of St. Anthony of 
Padua — next to the Cathedral, the oldest church in New Orleans. The building of 
this church originated in the people's fear of infection from the funerals that were 
held constantly in the Cathedral, for those 'W'^ere the days of the terrible yellow 
fever epidemics. The mayor offered to cede the ground for a Mortuary Chapel at 
a nominal price, if the Cathedral authorities would build it. The matter was held 
in abeyance for some years, but finally, in 1824, the Church of St. Anthony was 
built. Pere Antoine laid the cornerstone of the ancient building, which still 
-stands; the City Council passed an ordinance forbidding further funerals at the 
Cathedral, and so the little Church of St. Anthony became associated with a long 
line of funerals, with black-robed processions of mourners and with *the shedding 
of bitter tears. Perhaps no other church in the United States has such a melan- 
choly history. 

Not only were all funerals held from this church, but in many cases the dead 
lay in state here until the funeral; so that the church became known as the "dead 
house." The church continued to be used as a mortuary chapel until 1870, and was 


then converted into a parish church, and" still later into a place of worship for the 
Italians especially. A few years ago it was placed in the hands of the Dominican 
Friars, and still later was used by the Spanish colony of New Orleans. 


Directly opposite the Archiepiscopal Palace is an old Creole building with wide 
galleries. This was the home of Gen. P. G. T. Beauregard before and during 
the Civil War. This building has had its reverses, like so many others in the 
•downtown section, and now it is occupied by Sicilians. A few years ago it was 
the scene of a desperate vendetta battle, in which four men lost their lives and 
another was wounded. 


In Rampart street, just beyond the Old Basin, lies that beautiful bit of green 
lawn, trees and flowers known as Beauregard Square. It took some~ time to do 
away with the old name of this place, Congo Square, a name descended from the 
times when the square was outside the city limits, beyond the ramparts; when the 
negroes congregated there for their wild orgies, and, it was said, danced the terrible 
"Voo-doo" dances which they had brought with them from Africa. Cable, in one 
of his inimitable stories of "Old Creole Days," tells how Cayetano's Circus held 
forth in Congo Square, and how "Posson Jone' " added to the gayety of the occa- 
sion. But those times have passed, and the old square has been renamed in a 
very sane manner, and now there are green lawns, with beautiful trees and 
benches scattered through them, and the children skate merrily about the walks, 
in the very spot where the Voodoo Queen once held sway over a half-savage people. 
It is said that there are places in the swamp where some of the negroes- assemble 
on occasion .and hold their orgies as of old, but it appears to be merely a matter 
of hearsay rather than an established fact. 


This place is merely a site, as the building has been added to the things that 
were. It stood behind Beauregard Square, at Orleans and North Franklin streets. 
The building was erected in 1832. outside of the city, as it stood then, and it was 
the parish prison till 1895, when the new prison was erected in Tulane avenue. The 
prison would have had no history, perhaps, and would have gone fts way unnoticed 
if it had not been for the Mafia lynchings, March 14, 1891. The Italians were sus- 
pected of having murdered Chief of Police Hennessey; at the trial the jury 
acquitted six and entered a mistrial for three. It was believed that the jury had 
been tampered with; a long series of crimes for which no one had been punished 
had wrought the citizens to fever heat, and they determined that criminals should 
receive one salutary lesson, at least. The people arose, took possession of the jail, 
and shot or hanged eleven men. The United States was afterward forced to pay 
heavy damages to the families of the men who had been lynched. The principal 
pumping station of the city's sewerage system now occupies the site of the old 
parish prison. 


One of the interesting old churches of the city stands in Hospital street, 
between Rampart and St. Claude. In 1841 this church was built from designs made 
by the great architect De Pouilly, the same master of his craft who designed the 
old Hotel Royal. The altars and frescoes are especially interesting. Even the site 
of the church is linked with the history of New Orleans, for here stood the College 
d'Orleans, one of the earliest and best-known schools in the city. The college 
opened in 1811, and it numbered among its students a youth who was lo become 
well known to the city and to literature as the historian Gayarre. Here, also, 
Lakenal, the great French teacher and friend of public instruction, the real 
founder of state aid for schools, was at one time president. 


In Rampart, at Barracks, is the Monastery of the Discalced — or Barefooted — 
Carmelites. There are but four convents of this order in America. The nuns are 
strictly cloistered, and are as severe in their isolation as the Trappist Monks, going 
barefoot the year round, and living on vegetables and fruits alone. 


928 NortR Rampart street shows forth a building which is of the deepest 
interest to many residents of French descent through the city, and especially in 
the lower sections. This is "French Union Hall," or the hall of "L'Union Fran- 
caise-" and here is the meeting place of a French literary society, "L'Athanee 
Louisianais," to whom French is still a native language; and to keep up the 
interest in French is one of the most delightful objects in life. The French Union 
maintains a school for girls in this hall. 



The Nineteenth Century was well on its way before the little city on the banks 
of the Mississippi began to overstep its boundaries. The first considerable addi- 
tion to the city was made when Bernard Marigny, tired of his plantation perhaps, 
or maybe driven by that stern necessity which harries those who linger too long 
at the bagatelle board, divided the spreading acres up into city lots and sold 
them out, under the title of "Faubourg Marigny." This occurred in 1805. By 1815 
another Faubourg was laid out in the dowfitown section, but years had elapsed 
before it was built up to any great extent. Therefore, one finds little that is 
historic downtown, beyond the ancient limits of the city. 

On the Esplanade line, however, one finds himself outside of the walls, one 
may say, and beyond the moat which once protected the city from invasion; and 
it was along Esplanade that many of the wealthy and aristocratic old Creole fam- 
ilies established themselves, building their beautiful homes and surrounding them 
with a wealth of tsees and flowers and exquisite gardens. One of tliese beautiful 
homes is now the residence of the Archbishop of New Orleans. It was erected 
before the Civil War by a wealthy merchant, but after the war it became the 
home of Captain Cuthbert Slocomb, of the "Washington Artillery. It passed through 
other hands, and in 1899 was purchased by the Catholics of New Orleans as a home 
for the Archbishops of the diocese. The interior of this building is no less beautiful 
than its surroundings. 

On the lower side of Esplanade, between Mairais and Villere, stands St. Anna's 
Church. A mission to seamen stood here in 1846, and a few years later a chapel 
was built and called St. Peter's Chapel to Seamen. Soon after the war the bethel 
and chapel were sold, and the money used to purchase this site, which was called 
St. Anna, as a memorial to Anna, the wife of Dr. W. N. Mercer, who supplied 
the funds used in erecting it. In 1876 the original building was aestroyed by 
fire, but was rebuilt soon after, and consecrated by Bishop Galleher. On the wall 
of the chancel are tablets to the memory of Bishop Galleher, Bishop Wilmer and 
Bishop Leonidas Polk. At 1631 Esplanade is the residence in which General P. 
G. T. Beauregard died. 

One of the attractive new buildings on Esplanade is tjie Lower Girls' High 
School, a massive building of cream and white brick, which follows the design 
that has been adopted for all the new public schools. 

When the "Old Square" (Vieux Carre) of the city of New Orleans, was hedged 
in by walls and forts, there was a canal on the upper side, where 'Canal street 
now runs. The adjacent land was called the "Terre Commune," or common ground, 
which lay between the southern wall of the city and the plantation of the Jesuits. 
The canal — it was not called a canal then — formed the bed of a narrow, crooked 
little stream which emptied into the river. One may see from this how the 
topography has changed. Any water along Canal street would have to run up 
hill to empty into the Mississippi river today. 

In 1796 the mouth of this bayou was closed by the construction of Fort St. 
Louis at the south river corner of the city; all except a small opening, which was 
well guarded and was left in this condition for a number of years. This little 
watercourse formed the moat along the south side of the ramparts and was, there- 
fore, cherished by Carondelet. 

But the Jesuits had been expelled by Papal edict in 1763. 

The Jesuits arrived in the city in 1726, when New Orleans was about four 
years old, and announced themselves ready to devote their time and talents to 
the education of youth. They were welcorned by the colonists and Bienville gave 
them a tract of land, bounded by what are now Common, Tchoupitoulas, Terpsi- 
chore and Hagan avenue, or Bayou St. John, which at that time paralleled the 
Mississippi at about the line of the new Jefferson Davis Parkway. This included 
a tract 3600 feet wide by 8000 feet deep, and amounted to a goodly heritage. With 
this the city furnished residences and slaves to cultivate the land. 

During the following January a further grant was added, 1000 feet by 9000 feet 
deep, immediately above the original grant, and in 1745 the Jesuits added to this 
by purchase, extending their property to what is now Felicity street. The space 
between Common and Canal streets was reserved for a common, or for public 
uses: one of ^vhich seems to have been a burial place for the unknown or friend- 
less dead, or the first potter's field in the city. 

The Jesuits were extinguished, and the land was declared forfeited. One of 
the purchasers named the section he had bought the "Faubourg Ste. Mary," in 
honor of his wife. Many of the names which survive in this part of the city 
commemorate 'old plantation owners or financiers of that time — Poydras, Gravier, 
Girod, Foucher, Delord. But faubourg after faubourg was opened up. With the 
passing of Louisiana into the hands of the United States, there was a mighty 
influx of Americans, and they settled "uptown." The city spread further and 
further up. Little villages established themselves here and there, along the curves 
of the river, and the spaces between them filled up in the course of time, until jail 
the little villages were taken into the one great city. In this manner has New 
Orleans grown from the" ancient walled town below the canal. It covers the sites 
of goodly old plantations, and has caught wonderful old plantation houses to its 
heart, here and there, up and down the river, from the Barracks to Carrollton; 
and now it is spreading in the one other direction left to it — back of town — once 
the stigma that was the worst thing that could be said of any neighborhood. 

Many„ of the jmost^beautiful residence parks are 'in_ what was once " of 
town." They are no longer Ijack — they are town itself. 






Once upon a time, many years ago, there was a certain Louis Allard who 
owned a plantation on the outskirts of the city, in what must have been even then 
the most picturesque and romantic spot along- the Bayou St. John. No doubt they 
raised any amount of indigo on that plantation, and perhaps they had cotton 
and sugar cane in great quantities at the close of the harvest. He was not 
a very good farmer, however, this Louis Allard, for it is said of him that he was 
a man of letters, that he read enorfnously, and that he even wrote verse. Who' 
could succeed with such a handicap? At any rate, arong came John McDonogh, 
who did not write verse, and bought the last portion of the plantation that increas- 
ing calainities had left to poor Louis Allard; and in McDonogh's will this portion 
of land was left to the city and to Baltimore, along with the remainder of his 
great estate. But Allard, poor and depressed and unable to tear himself away 
from the oaks under which he had spent many an hour leading and writing, was 
permitted to live at the place; and when his death came he was buried under his 
favorite tree. You may see the humble tomb there now; the only lomo mat w^lU 
ever be permitted to establish itself in the great City Park. 

"The Oaks?" When people speak of them they mean the great "Dueling 
Oaks," under which many a reckless and daring young fellow lost his life. People 
fought for anything, or for nothing, in those days. The city had a number of 
expert fencing masters, and it was considered part of a young gentieman's educa- 
tion to be skilled in fencing. Here the young brother of Governor Claiborne's 
girl-wife fought and was killed. One man fought eighteen duels here in the 
pauses between sessions of Congress, of whir'h he was a member. At least one 
United States senator walked out there one early morning to his death. On one 
Sunday ten duels were fought under the historic oaks. 

The City Park Commission, during the past few years, has effected wonderful 
changes in the City Park; building a beautiful lake, spanned by graceful bridges; 
planting innumerable trees and shrubs; building the Peristyle, which seems to 
have been transplanted from some old Greek temple, and adorning the park with 
palm avenues and placing waterfowl in the lake, so that the whole place is a 
delight to the eye of the visitor. 

Iiug'g'er Iianding' at Old Basin. 


One of the streets which may justly be considered the very oldest in the city 
is Grande Route St. John, which leads from Bayou St. John riverwards. When 
the first white visitors came to the site of New Orleans they found an Indian 
village on the banks of the bayou, near where it is crossed by Esplanade avenue; 
and leading from the village to the river was an Indian portage, beaten smooth, 
by the many moccasined feet that had traversed it. When the new city was laid 
out, this portage continued to be the best path to the bayou; until finally several 
important residences were established along the bayou, and then this Indian trail 
became Grande Route St. John. Later, it became a street, with houses lining: 



Main Aisle St. Iiouis Cemetery No. 1. 

Old Tombs, St. Iiouis Cemetery STo. 1. 



it on both sides; and so is preserved e\'ery line of an old Indian path, beaten 
out from bayou to river before tiie first white face was seen alonsf the lower 


About three hundred yards from Esplanade avenue, on Bayou St. John, is a 
cluster of buildings, set in the midst of a most beautiful grove. This is the Soldiers' 
Home, or "Camp Nicholls," as it was callfed for Governor Nicholls, during whose 
administration it was established. This delightful retreat gives a resting place 
to a large number of old soldiers — the number growing smaller year by year^— 
who have found the burden and heat of the day more than they can bear, and 
have come to "accept the hospitable shelter provided for them by the state tor 
■which they sacrificed themselves in the days of their youth. The home is under 
the control of a board of directors, consisting of five members, from each of the 
army associations — Tennessee and Northern Virginia; and five appointed by the 
governor of Louisiana. The site for this beautiful home was acquired by the 
board in 1883. 

St. Roch's Votive Chapel. — See I'age 51. 



It is supposed that Bienville prdvided for a cemetery when the old city was 
laid out, and that this burial place was immediately behind the parish church, 
on the site now occupied by the temporary Cathedral, which is in the rear of the 
Cathedral itself. It is also believed that there was some kind of cemetery at the 
corner of Bourbon and Esplanade, outside the walls of the city. The Cathedral 




cemetery was in use down to 1743, when the new^ city crow^ded it too closely, and 
it was moved to a point beyond the ramparts, between St. Louis and Toulouse — 
the exact point has not been determined. In 1788 it was moved again, this time to 
the corner of Basin and Conti streets, where the old St. Louis No. 1 stands today. 
It covered more space in the beginning than it does today, for there was a time 
when it extended to Rampart street, and the opening of Treme street cut off a 
portion at the back. The oldest inscription decipherable in the old cemetery bears 
the date of 1800. Many interesting tombs are to be found in this plot, and there 
are long-drawn titles of nobility inscribed on the slabs of marble and granite, 
half obliterated by the "moving finger" of time. Among these one may rmd tlie 
inscription to "Albert Montecucoli Laderchi, son of Countess Chalmette Montecucoli 
Laderchi, nee Princess Cettingen "Wallenstein." The high-sounding titles are lost 
sight of, however, in the pathetic lines that follow them "This tablet was placed 
here by a broken-hearted mother, who supplicates in tears all ye who pass this way 
to kneel and say a prayer for the repose of her son's soul." 

Benedict Pradelle, "an officer of the Revolution under Lafayette," who died in 
1803, is buried here, and Colonel Michael Fortier and Dracos Dimitry, officers who 
served in the army of Galvez against the British in Louisiana, and Paul Morphy, 
the great chess player, and Etienne de Bore, the first who produced granulated 
sugar, and his grandson, Gayarre, the historian, and Charles Bepoist LaSalle, 
brother of the great explorer, and Stephen, founder of the first bank established 
in the Mississippi Valley. At the back of the cemetery, beyond a board fence, 
will be found the little plot of ground that formed the Protestant burial ground 
in the early part of the century, and there stands the tombs of Governor Clai- 
borne's young wife and her tlifee-year-old child, who died of yellow fever on the 
same day. Her brother, who was killed in a duel under the great oaks in City 
Park, is also buried under the same monument. There also is the tomb of Mid- 
shipman Canby, who was killed in the battle of Lake Borgne. 


The Nineteenth Century was still young when it was found that the city needed 
more cemetery space. Therefore it was that the City Council, in 1824, conveyed 
to the Cathedral three blocks of ground in Claiborne avenue. These constitute St. 
Louis Cemetery No. 2, although divided by streets running between them. Alex- 
ander Milne is buried there, and Francois Xavier Martin, chief justice of Louisiana 
in 1815; Pierre Soule, the statesman and orator, and Dominique You, of piratical 
memory, whose epitaph calls him the "new Bayard," "Sans Peur et Sans Re- 


The New St. Louis Cemetery, in Esplanade avenue, near Bayou St. John, is 
one of the most beautiful of the cemeteries in the old city. It occupies the site 
of the village of the Tchoupchouma Indians, and it was somewhere near this spot 
that Bienville first set foot on the land in which he was to establish a city. 


One of the most visited points of interest in the old city is St. Roch's Shrine 
and the Campo Santo surrounding it. The Chapel was erected in 1871 by Father 
Thevis, with his own hands, in fulfillment of a vow that if none of his parishioners 
died during the epidemic of 1866-67 he would, stone by stone, build a chapel in 
thanksgiving to God. None of this congregation died, and the chapel was built, 
and the place called Campo Sajito, or Holy Field. Soon the shrine became a favor- 
ite place for the pilgrimages of the pious, and all about the altar were hung the 
"ex votos" of believers. The shrine is surmounted by a statue of St. Roch, and 
by his side is the figure of a dog, in commemoration of the dog which fed him 
when he lay afflicted with the plague and abandoned in the forest. 

On Good Friday, St. Roch's Chapel becomes the center of attraction for the 
young girls of the city, Protestant as well as Catholic. They have been told that 
if they visit nine churches and say a prayer and make an offering in every one of 
them, and then visit St. Roch and "make the Way of the Cross," closing by buying 
a candle and lighting it before the altar, they will be sure to marry happily before 
the year is out. It is not recorded how many happy marriages have resulted from 
this expedition, but no doubt the voyagers into the land of romance have found 
it all they could desire, as they have passed the information on to other and still 
other young girls. 

The picturesqueness of the old place has been considerably marred by the tide 
of improvements which have made of the wandering little burying ground a formal 
cemetery with orderly walks and correct angles; and in doing this one of the 
old customs has been ruthlessly abolished. 

Only a few years ago, one remembers, the girls used to wander among the 
quaint little tombstones and the scattered graves, looking for four-leafed clovers. 
For some reason they were rather abundant in this little cemetery, and the finding 
of one seemed to clinch the happy augury of the long pilgrimage and the votive 


J^M.' . 




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i IKS 


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Parade Ground, U. S. Barracks. 


The first barracks in the city were erected ip. Chartres street, at tlie corner 
of Barracks street, which received its name from their proximity. After a number 
of years the buildings were demolished and the site was sold; and then, in 1833, 
the United States established the present military post below the city. A high 
brick wall fronted the place, with two observation towers at the corners, and the 
number of original buildings has been greatly increased by the addition of those 
handsome quarters for the officers, and other structures which formed three sides 
of the huge parade_ground quadrangle. 

Formerly the main entrance to the post was by an arched passage through 
one of the main buildings, then used as a dwelling for the commander, but as 
the Barracks are at a point where the restless current of the Mississippi is eating 
into the bank, it was found necessary to build a new levee behind the old one, and 
this forced the removal of the old building. Jackson Barracks has been an artil- 
lery post since the Spanish War, with a garrison of about 250 men. 


About a mile below the Barracks is the upper line of the battlefield of Chal- 
mette, marked by the Chalmette Monument, which is said to stana wnere the 
American standard was planted on that memorable occasion. One can see tne 
white obelisk rising from among the trees, while he is yet a long way off, ana 
nothing could exceed the beauty and peacefulness of the spot on a nearer view. 
The monument — unfinished for so many years, but finally completed through the 
efforts of the Daughters of 1812 — is a reproduction of the Washington Monument, 
except in size, and is a beautiful and imposing memorial to the men who took part 
in that last and most unnecessary battle of the War of 1812. 

Not' far away, from the river back to the swamp, the slow-moving years have 
planted another memorial — a long line of trees which follows the line of the 
American trenches. These fortifications were thrown up along the Rodriguez canai, 
and perhaps it was because the earth was loose, but at any rate the seeds fell 
there and sprouted, and the trees grew. They are huge trees now, some of them, 
and help the monument to mark out the line of the old battlefield, lest we forget. 

There could not have been a more peaceful spot than the old plantation of 
Monsieur Chalmette de Ligny, and that successful Creole planter could have had 
little idea that his name would pass to immortality in connection witn a battle- 
field. It is sad to reflect that the battle was fought after the war was over, and 
in days of Atlantic cable and telegraph it would never have been fought at all. 
It is pleasant to know, however, that since the Americans must fight, they fought 
so well that the Battle of New Orleans stands as one of their great victories. 

General Pakenham, who had distinguished himself under Wellington, led the 
British forces,- whose objective was New Orleans, the gateway to the Mississippi. 
The expedition had not been able to start out without making a stir, and the news 



of it reached the President. He sent word to the governors of Kentucky, Tennessee 
and Georgia, calling for troops. One may imagine the rush of the pony express 
from place to place, getting word to men that British invasion was ahout to strike 
in a new quarter. General Andrew Jackson was dispatched to New Orleans to 
take charge of the defense, and in a few days had assembled an army of 5000 men — 
only 1000 of whom were regulars. It was to be like the battle of Lexington over 
again. This poorly fitted army was to confront 7000 trained soldiers, many of 
whom were veterans of the Peninsular War, commanded by Pakenham, an officer 
who had distinguished himself under Wellington, one of the greatest military 
leaders England had ever known. 

Pakenham had landed near the northeastern end of Lake Borgne and marched 
toward the Mississippi, reaching a point on the river about nine miles below New 
Orleans. Jackson made one attack on the night of December 24th, 1814, and on 

Chalmette Cemetery. 

the 28th, Pakenham attempted to break the American lines, but failed. The little 
army, recruited from field and workshop and office, stood its ground. 

For nearly two weeks the armies sat watching one another. During that time 
Jackson was reinforced by 2000 men under General Adair, while Pakenham's avail- 
able forces were increased to nearly 10,000 by the arrival of General Lambert's 
division. Seven thousand to ten thousand, they faced one another on Chalmette 
field, and made their preparations for the struggle that was to come. 

Jackson had intrenched his army along the Rodriguez canal, from the river 
to the swamp, m such a manner that it could not be flanked. Three front attacks 
were made on the morning of January 8, and all were repulsed with great 
slaughter. Pakenham and Gibbs, his second in command, were mortally wounded, 
and another general, Keane, was disabled. Lambert succeeded to the command, 






and he hastily .withdrew his disorganized men to the lines on the Villere and Blen- 
venue plantations, and on the morning of the 9th returned to his ships. The 
British loss was 1500 killed and wounded, while the Americans lost hut eight 
killed and thirteen wounded. 

Among the oaks down the river, the ruins of an old house are pointed out as 
sacred to the memory of the gallant Pakenham, who is said to have died in that 
house. Like most traditions of this kind, the claim has been disputed, but the 
Daughters of 1812, at least, give their allegiance to this crumbling ruin as the 
house in which Pakenham breathed his last. 

The old building called the Pakenham house was taken in hand some time 
ago by the Colonial Dames, who at first intended to restore it. They found, 
however, that this would be an expensive undertaking; so they cojitented them- 
selves with placing a memorial tablet on the building, with clearing and beauti- 
fying the grove, which is one of the finest in the country; and with fencing it in. 
In this last matter they considered themselves very fortunate. By some happy 
chance they came upon the old iron fence which once surrounded Tulane Univer- 
sity — it was not called that then — when it stood where the Tulane and Crescent 
theaters stand now; and with this relic of the old days they fenced in the grove 
around the old Delaronde house. 

January 8 is celebrated by the public schools of New Orleans in commemoration 
of this battle, and is a public holiday in this city. 


Two miles further down the river, on part of the old battlefield, is the Chal- 
mette National Cemetery, where more than 12,000 Union soldiers from majiy South- 
ern battlefields are buried. The cemetery is beautifully kept up, with its long 
rows of orderly little tablets rising out of the green grass; but, alas, there are 
many graves not marked with any tablet. Of the 12,000 interred here, more than 
5000 are "unknown," and it is such graves as these which show forth the darkest 
tragedies brought about by cruel war. 

Building's rormerly Known as the Ursuline Convent. — See Page 87. 





New Orleans City Hall. 


One of the handsomest buildings of a time that gave itself up to classic archi- 
tecture is the City Hall, which stands at the corner of St. Charles and Lafayette 
streets. This building was erected in 1850 from plans made by James Gallier, the 
most noted architect of the times; and every visitor will note the pleasing resem- 
blance of the front to the Parthenon at Athens. The building is of marble, and 
the Ionic portico is very imposing. The pediment has a beautiful bas relief of 
Justice, surrounded by symbolic figures of Commerce and Manufactures. 

The original building, which contains the Mayor's office and the offices of 
the different members of the commission, as well as other offices, fronts on St. 
Charles street^^ as has been sala. A few years ago it became necessary to build 
an annex, to ^accommodSLi; tJie rapidly-increasing business of the city, and this 
building runs through the block and fronts in Carondelet street. 

In the large room where the Council always held its meeting, in the old build- 
ing, the remains of Jefferson Davis were laid in state previous to their first inter- 
ment in Metairie Cemetery. 


The first building of importance in Tulane avenue is the criminal courthouse, 
with the jail back of it. This building was erected between 1893 and 1895, and has 
the Criminal Courts on the second floor. The inspector of police and the First 
Recorder's Court are on the first floor. The jail is on the Gravier street side of 
the building; a very strong and well-built structure. 


Everyone who wanders down Royal or Chartres street will see, several blocks 
below Canal, one of the handsomest structures in the city, among the most incon- 
gruous surroundings. It was because the new postoffice was to be set uptown 
that it was argued honors must be divided, and the new courthouse must be given 
to the downtown section of the city. 

To make way for it, an entire block was razed — the block bounded by Royal, 
Conti, Chartres and St. Louis streets. Many interesting buildings went down in 
that sweep of progress; among them the quaint building which had long been the 
home of Mollie Moore Davis, and where she had entertained every person ot 
note who visited the city. 

The great marble structure seems to have been set in the midst of the old 
houses around it as a perpetual reproach to their need of repair. Chief eyesore 
of all was the Hotel Royal, which looked rustier and grayer thap ever after the 
building of the courthouse, so that there was nothing possible but to tear it down 
and get it out of sight as quickly as possible; therefore, it has gone its way — 
loftly dome and beautiful frescoes and slave-block and all. It belonged to a past 
generation — and the courthouse was the last word in progress expressed by the 
generation of today. 





|j V ""■# 




.J88^ «-i 




Facing Lafayette Square, on the river side, is an immense building occupying 
an etire block — the new postoffice. 

Perhaps the gratification of New Orleans over the acquisition of this building 
was partly due to the fact that, though the city was nearly two hundred years 
old, it had never yet possessed a postoffice building — that is, a building erected 
by the government for a postoffice. During the early part of the past century 
the postoffice had shifted about, from one building to another. For many years 
it was in Royal street; but, as on former occasions, its business grew so fast that 
it did not have room. In the course of time it was moved to the lower floor of 
the Customhouse in Canal street, and there it lingered for more years; the building, 
cramped, insanitary, badly lighted and ventilated and wholly unsuited for the 
business in hand. 

It is probable that a visit of certain government officials, some years ago, 
resulted in the new building in Camp street. They were shown the old postoffice 
in the Customhouse, and it must have made a vast impression on them. At any 
rate. New Orleans has a postoffice — a splendid building, which, with a few 
changes, would be ideal in space and in convenience to the public as well as to 
the employes. 

It is not to be supposed, however, that this is a postoffice alone. It is a Federal 
building, -in which are established a large number of the government offices. It 
holds the United States Circuit Court of Appeals, the United States District Court, 
the United States Department of Justice, the Weaher Bureau, the Secret Service, 
Bureau of Naturalization, and the offices of the United States District Attorney, 
the Marshal, United States Commissioners, and the Referee in Bankruptcy, and 
other departments of the government service. 


If the visitor should make his way out to the suburbs of the city, in any 
direction, he will find railroad tracks and perhaps freights cars or trains switch- 
ing. These are the outward and visible sign of one of the city's most important 
commercial assets — the Public Belt Railroad. Before the inauguration of this road, 
the switching facilities at this port were operated by the several railroad lines 
which had terminals at the water front, each particular line operating in a par_ 
ticular section over which it had trackage facilities. Interline business was sub- 
ject to as many arbitrary switching charges as there were railroads operating 
same, and there were often vexations and costly delays. In some instances the cost 
of switching a car was as high as $13, and it was seldom lower than $6. 

Then came the New Orleans Public Belt Railroad, a terminal switch road 
owned exclusively by the city, controlled by a commission made up of sixteen 
citizen tax-payers, and with the mayor as president of the commission. This road 
was created in 1904. It should be noted that the members of the commission serve 
without any salary or remuneration. 

The Public Belt road receives cars from the several railroad companies at 
different points and delivers them to whatever other railroad, steamship or wharf 
to which they may be destined. It transfers cars from railroad to railroad, from 
railroads to wharves, from wharves to railroads, from railroads to industries and 
public delivery tracks, from industries to all transportation outlets of the city; 
and it does all this at the small and uniform charge of $2 for every car, and this 
includes delivery of the loaded car and return of the empty, or vice versa. 

This wonderful adjunct to the business of the city and port serves eleven 
public delivery tracks and has connection fith seventy industries, manufactories 
and warehouses. As a member of the per diem rules agreement, it pays the 
owner of every car handled the current per diem rate for every car detained 
on the rails of the Public Belt Railroad. 

When loaded ships tie up at the docks and the unloading begins, the cars at the 
outer side of the sheds are loaded; and as soon as this is done the trains are 
made up by the Public Belt switch engine and in an incredibly short time the 
train is delivered to the road over which> it is to go. It is a wonderful advantage 
♦ i# the city, and every one of its fifty-eight miles of trackage is an asset to 
New Orleans. The manner in w^hich the city is making use of the Public Belt 
Railroad is shown by the fact that the number of ^ cars handled has grown from 
year to year, until during the last year it has amounted to 247,101 cars. 


"New Orleans, the great grain port of the United States." That is the slogan 
in the city that is developing now. 

The growth of the port has been immense during the past five years, and 
with its growth there has been a steadily increasing flow of grain into this city 
and on through to all ports of the world. New Orleans is the gateway to the 
great Mississippi "Valley, with its broad grain belt; and it became absolutely 
necessary to provide for this product of the prairies of the Middle West. 

There have been grain elevators, but they have been privately owned by 
certain railroads; and the conditions of service to other roads have been bur- 
densome at times. It became a m.atter of economy for the state to own her 
elevators, which would be at the command of all roads. Therefore, the Board 
of Port Commissioners was authorized by the state to erect elevators, as well 
as a cotton warehouse, and whatever other improvements might be necessary to 
develop the business of the port — and, therefore, the grain elevator was the 
next in line. 




Engineers of the Board of Port Commissioners prepared a report on condi- 
tions and plans; and by the time the report was ready the financing of the scheme 
had been perfected. A special elevator committee was appointed, with Mr. A. F. 
Leonhardt as chairman and Messrs. J. D. Hardin and W. D. Richeson as members. 

This new elevator has many advantages over any other now in the port, in 
the rapid handling both in the receiving and the shipping of grain, and the 
great flexibility in the distributing and conveying systems. It is located on the 
river front, at the head of Bellecastle street; and the Public Belt Railroad will 
used to deliver the grain to the elevator, no matter by what road it may come. 
There are the very best track facilities for the rapid handling of cars, and tiie 
tracks are so arranged that the cars, after passing the track shed, are carried 
through into the main yards. All the buildings, with the exception of the gal- 
leries, are of reinforced concrete; while the galleries are of structural steel, with 
book-tile roof and floor. 

The entire structure is so planned that nothing is left undone in the way of 
speed, ease and economy in handling grain. With the facilities already at hand, 
this places New Orleans in the very front rank in grain exports, and will increase 
her efficiency and multiply ,her opportunities from year to year. 

Interior View of Cotton Warehouse. 


If the visitors to the city today could be shifted back along the years to about 
the middle of the past century, and could have even a glimpse of the manner in 
which cotton was handled then — and for a long time after — they would appreciate 
more deeply what the great cotton warehouse means to the whole Mississippi 
Valley, and how much more it will mean when the work is completed. 

In the old days, the steamers came down the river, walled up to the hurricane 
deck with bales of cotton. They tied up at the open wharf, and the cotton bales 
were rolled and pulled up or down the gangplank — whether up or down depended 
on the stage of the river. Then they were piled on the wharf, and some effort was 
made to cover them with tarpaulins. It had always been . so, since they began 
bringing cotton into New Orleans. They did not think there could be any better 
way. DeBow, in his Review, somewhere in the forties, expilained the wharf system, 
the flooring of the wharves with the wide cracks between the boards which allowed 
the rain to go through, the tarpaulin covers, and congratulated the city on having 
such a complete and satisfactory arrangement of wharves. In the meantime, per- 
haps the cotton was to be transferred to some warehouse, or to some one of the 
great brick cotton presses; so men and teams came and the bales were pulled and 
rolled into the wagons and hauled away to their appointed place. After awhile, they 
were sold to Europe or to the East, and the ship was at the wharf; so the men 
and teams came again, the bales were loaded into the wagons again, and hauled 
to the wharf; and again they were unloaded, rolled to the edge, and so slung into 
the holds of the ships. And with every separate handling there was more expense, 
and the profit grew less. 




And back came the complaints of the European or Eastern purchasers. The 
cotton was wet and dirty, and a great deal of it was waste; if it could not be 
handled better, New Orleans would lose its cotton trade. 

The change did not come immediately. In fact, it has only just arrived; but 
when it came it brought with it all that the twentieth century had to offer in 
the way of improved handling machinery, elimination of wasted time and effort 
and reduction of cost to the minimum,, together with absolute security against 
that perpetual menace to cotton — fire. 

That is what is meant by the immense cotton warehouse, away up on the 
bank of the river. 

In the first place, the building is fireproof, and there will be no possibility 
of a conflagration. 

The warehouse area is one hundred acres. It includes, besides the warehouse 
itself, nearly thirteen miles of belt railroad tracks. 

It has a handling capacity of two million bales annually. 

The most up-to-date handling machinery is there, by means of which a bale 
can be sent from car to warehouse, or to boat, or from boat to car, or to be stored 
in the warehouse, in such a short time that it seems like the work of magic instead 
of m,ere machinery. It has an automatic weighing machine. It has electric trucks 
and internal concrete runways. 

One of the most ingenious pieces of machinery is that which slips a bale out 
from the very bottom of an immense pile of bales, if it happens to be needed, with- 
out disarranging the pile, in the shortest possi<ble time. 

Fire insurance companies, finding how the staple will be protected in this 
warehouse, have agreed to a rate of 15 cents per $100 annually, as against a rate 
of $2 and $2.50 in most sections. 

The warehouse issues a warehouse receipt for every bale or lot of bales, and 
attached to this receipt is a certificate issued by the classification department of 
the New Orleans Cotton Exchange showing, under guarantee, the class, staple 
character, condition and weight of each bale. 

The plant affords shipside storage — an immense advantage. In its surplus sup- 
plies of cotton may be carried, subject to instant needs of all consuming markets. 

This splendid institution is a state development, the managers being selected 
by a board representing the New^ Orleans Board of Trade, the New Orleans Cotton 
Exchange and the Board of Port Commissioners. 

This warehouse has revolutionized the cotton business of this port. 


No visitor to New Orleans will fail to see the great docks, and to comprehend 
in some sort of way what they mean to this city. The time has been, and not 
many years ago, when the whole dock system comprised a long line of wooden 
wharves, badly kept up, and in many cases falling to ruins. There were years 
when the city did its utmost to keep the wharves in repair; but it was probable 
that a great deal of money was spent with little tangible result. 

It is within the past few years that the New Orleans docks have become a 
state institution. (Bond issues were authorized for the improvement of these docks, 
for the building of steel sheds and the installing of equipment; for building the 
cotton warehouse and the grain elevator, and for bringing the entire dock system 
into line with the advancement of New Orleans as an up-to-date city. 

It will be noticed that most of the wharves are covered with steel sheds, under 
which incoming and outgoing cargoes are protected from the weather; that the 
Public Belt Road has trackage facilities at the outer edge of the sheds, so that 
merchandise can be swung out of the hatches of vessels and promptly loaded into 
cars, or vice versa; that wherever it is needed mechanical conveyers have been 
installed, to lessen the labor of loading and unloading, and that the docks are 
abreast of the times in every way. 

It is also to be noticed that in one way the wharfage facilities are practically 
unequaled. The ship is able to lie up alongside of the wharf, so that it may be 
loaded or unloaded from all the hatches at once, and can be lightered from_ the 
river side at the same time, thus doubling or trebling the facilities of other cities. 
This saving of time alone lessens the expense in a very marked degree, and added 
to this, the handling facilities make New Orleans an ideal port from a commercial 

One of the most interesting of the wharves is the banana wharf, at the head 
of Thalia street. There the great banana ships make their landing, and one may 
look upon one of the busiest scenes of the city. Bananas intended for shipment 
must not linger on the way; so the entire ship is in a work, and the wharves 
are covered with men going away laden or coming back for other loads. The great 
conveyors are dipped down into the bottommost hold of the ship, at all hatches; 
men stand on either side and lay the huge bunches of bananas in the canvas 
"pockets"; the conveyor turns on its endless chain, and brings the bunches up to 
the wharf, and there they are tipped out of the pockets, checked by the men on 
either side, lifted to the shoulders of the carriers, and taken across the wharves 
in one unending line to the cars, which are backed up there, and are loaded into 
the cars by still other men who are skilled in their line. It is a thrilling scene. 
A ship comes in. bearing sixty or seventy thousand bunches of bananas, the cars 
are loaded, the Public Belt engines pull them out and make them into trains and 
turn them over to the road over which they are to be shipped; and by midnight 
the train is speeding northward, a fast freight, holding the right of way to Chi- 
cago or St. Louis or Cincinnati. 

The Poydras street wharf is the coffee wharf, and there one may behold a 
wondrous sight. Ships come in laden with something like 120,000 sacks of coffee, 
and it is piled high, waiting for its marching orders. New Orleans is the second 


coffee port in the United States, and a stranger looking through this great steel 
shed for the first time would feel sure it held enough coffee to last the United 
States for an entire year. 

The wharves are covered with steel sheds at Valence street, Eighth, Harmony, 
Sixth, First, St. Andrew, Celeste, Robin, Erato, St. Joseph, Julia, Girod, Poydras, 
Bienville, Toulouse, Dumaine, Governor Nicholls, Mandeville, Press, Louisa and 
Pauline streets. 

The records for one year show that 2153 vessels arrived at the port of New 
Orleans, and that of these 1529 occupied the public wharves. These are from many 
nations, and were flying many flags. No more interesting trip could be imagined 
than one up and down the w^harves, more than forty miles of river frontage, and 
more than eight miles of wharves and steel sheds, and see the ships that are tied 
up broadside, loading or unloading; and the thousand-and-one different articles 
that make up the cargoes, and the men of all nationalities, that make their way in 
and out. 

It is one of the distinctive features of new New Orleans, the city of today. 


A few blocks pbove Carrollton avenue, at Spruce street, is one of the most inter- 
esting places in New Orleans; the one which gave the splendid initiative to many 
other m.ovements, and which placed this city in the front rank as up-to-date and 
pushing forward in every way. 

The drinking water in the old days was obtained, as everyone knows, from the 
tail cistern or tier of cisterns which stood at the back of the house and caught the 
rain ■water from the eaves. 

It would be sad to know how many people were sacrificed by these cisterns 
during the long decades in which they made up a feature of the urban landscape. 

No, they did not tumble down on them and kill them. They could have reached 
only a few, comparatively, by that method. 

They simply furnished the breeding ground for the Stegomyia Fasciata, the 
yellow fever incubating mosquito. 

But now they have changed all that. They have provided New Orleans with 
drinking water that is ninety-nine per cent pure; that is clear and sparkling, and 
that is limitless in quantity. 

A few blocks from the filtration plant are the intake pipes, which draw ul 
the water from the depths of the river, and take it over to the great plant. II 
flows into a huge tank that covers acres, and does not look appetizing in the least 
for it is yellow and muddy. ,But there it is set running, by gravity, along gradual 
declines, so that it moves slowly; and as it m.oves it drops its sediment to the bot- 
tom. Out of one great tank into another, always moving along, until it traverses 
miles on that quiet pilgrimage. In the last tank it is almost perfectly clear; but 
there is a small amount of iron and lime mixed with it, and this is called the coag- 
ulation tank; for these chemicals take away the last of the impurity. Then the 
water is turned into the mammoth filter. The bottom of this filter is made up 
of three feet of Horn island sand — taken from beneath the sea level at Horn island, 
and especially fitted for filtration purposes — and gravel; and when it has passed 
through this it is tested, c'lemically — they are always testing the city's water at 
the filtration plant, and it has to measure up to specifications — and if it is what 
it should be it is passed into great reservoirs to be passed on to the city. 

The inauguration of this plant, and the extension of the waterworks mains so 
that they supply all parts of the city have been a work of time. As it was not 
desired to place an unbearable burden on any citizen, the period for the removal 
of the cisterns was extended, but now the last ancient cistern must bid farewell 
to the city where it held sway so long. In the meantime, however, every cistern 
had to be screened against mosauitoes — an ordinance that was very strictly en- 
forced; and the people of New Orleans have had the assurance that even if a case 
of yellow fever were brought to this city there would be no contagion, because there 
would be no S+egomyia mosquitoes to spread the disease. It means a great deal 
to this city to be utterly freed from the danger of an infection which decimated it 
for so many long years. 

Hand in hand with the supplying of excellent drinking water to the city has 
gone the drainage of New Orleans. The period of open gutters and cesspools has 
vanished. The city has a magnificent drainage system, and also a system, of sew- 
erage; the water level in the soil has been lowered several feet, and it is even pos- 
sible to have cellars and basements in New Orleans. The area of the c'ty is 
drained after a heavy rainfall in a short time, the water passing from one drainage 
station to another, until finally it is raised over levees and sent into Lake Pont- 
chartrain ; while the sewage is passed on to Lake Borgne, or into the depths of the 
river; below the city. 


On the river front, beginning just above Louisiana avenue, are the Stuyvesant 
Docks, belonging to the Illinois Central Railroad. These docks were destroyed by 
fire in 1905; one of the largest and most spectacular fires that ever occurred in 
New Orleans; but they were immediately re-erected on a larger scale and at a cost 
of nearly three million dollars. One of the elevators here has a capacity of one 
million bushels of grain and the other of one and a half millions. Either of them 
can unload 250 cars a day; and delivers through its conveyors to three steamers 
at once. These docks cover about 2000 feet of river frontage. 


About the year 1830 a beautiful shell road was constructed, running from Met- 
airie Ridge to "West End. It ran along the banks of the Gravier Canal, a water- 



way which was neglected and unused, and which only needed to be widened and 
deepened. The agUation for this improvement began as early as 1816, for the people 
in the upper portions of the city, so rapily developing, desired the same advantages 
possessed by those In the lower portions, through the Carondelet Canal. They 
wanted direct communication with the lake and thence with the gulf. By means 
of such a waterway as this they would be able to bring produce from Mobile and 
all along the lake' and the gulf coast, and bring it right Into the heart of their 
section of the city, or as far as Rampart and Howard avenue. 

The work was finally authorized in 1830, Senator Simon Cameron taking the 
contract. He brought hundreds of laborers here from the North, and in a little 
while they were swept down by the scores In epidemics of pestilence. But, in one 
way or another, the Canal was finished; the Shell Road ran alongside of it; and 
along that road today rush automobiles in an ever-increasing throng — a beautiful 
road which started at Lee Circle, ran up St. Charles to Carrollton avenue and out 
along the Canal to West End. This was one of the most noted drives in the United 
States once, and still retains its charm as automobiles and the good roads move- 
ment have led to further improvement. 

PHsTo Br p.ivoiRe , 

The Cotton Exchang'e. 


At the corner of Carondelet stands that richly-carved facade of the Cotton 
Exchange building, and it is there that many a battle has been fought over the 
staple that means so much to the South, and many a man has left the pit richer by 
millions, and many another has departed so Door that the future looked exceedingly 
dark to him. The organization was effected in 1871, with a membership of 100. 
Ten years later this building, which cost $380,000, was begun. It took two years in 
the building. The exchange occupies the lower floor, and strangers and visitors 
may watch the proceedings from a gallery that is accessible from the elevator. 

The celling of this great room, which forms the Cotton Exchange proper. Is 
adorned with paintings of scenes in Louisiana history. 

It Is probable that within a year or two a new building will be constructed for 
the exchange, more modern, and giving more room for the operation of the exchange. 



As there m.ust be a Cotton Exchange in which men can meet for the buying 
and selling of cotton, so there must be a Sugar Exchange for similar work in 
sugar. The traffic in sugar is mostly handled from the Sugar Exchange at North 
Front and Bienville streets. 

The Sugar Exchange is worth a visit, if only to see the portraits that hang 
upon the walls. There is a picture of Etienne de Bore, the first great sugar 
planter of Louisiana, the first who ever raised a profitable crop, the first who suc- 
ceeded in granulating sugar, the man whose plantation was in the vicinity of Au- 
dubon Park. There is another portrait — Don Antonio Mendes, the first who granu- 
lated sugar from cane in the parish of St. Bernard. There is the picture of Jean 
Joseph Coiron, "who, in 1818, put up on his plantation in Terre-aux-Boeufs the first 
steam, engine ever used to grind cane, and who later introduced from Georgia the 
red ribbon cane in place of the white or Creole variety. All these portraits mark 
milestones in the progress of the sugar industry, and may well be cherished by 
the members of the Exchange. 


This organization is a development of the Progressive Union, which did ex- 
cellent work for New Orleans a few years ago; and this in turn was the outcome 
of the "get-together" movement which is responsible for most of the civic growth 
of the city during the past two decades. The leading m,en of the city are com- 
bined in this Associauion of Commerce, and are working without ceasing for the 
upbuilding of New Orleans. The Good Roads Movement, the Dock improvements, 
every plan that is for the betterment of this city has been fostered by the Associa- 
tion of Commerce. The Merchants' and Manufacturers' Bureau is an allied or- 
ganization, and, as part of the outgrowth of the assciation's work, the Junior 
Assciation has been formed, and has thrown itself into civic work with great spirit. 

The headquarters of the Association of Commerce is at the corner of Common 
and St. Charles streets. 


The entrance of the Board of Trade Building is at 320 Magazine street, between 
Natchez Alley and Gravier. The entrance is through a tunnel through other build- 
ings, and this, with the buildings through which it runs, is called Banks' Arcade, 
from Thomas Banks, the builder, who erected the place in 1833. He intended this 
covered alleyway as a gathering place for merchants; a place to while away a 
little leisure; to have a few minutes' conversation on the way to and from the 
hours of business. There were stores along the Magazine front, the passage which 
ran from, Natchez was roofed with glass, and the celebrated John Hewlett con- 
ducted a restaurant there, with a coffee room where five hundred people might 
be entertained at one time. 

The Board of Trade has been called "the watchman of the trade and commerce 
of the city of New Orleans," and has always taken the initiative in urging increased 
facilities for the upbuilding of the city along commercial lines. It was in 1895 
that the Board of Trade discovered that trade was being lost to the city because 
certain of the wharves were leased to a private corporation, and they began mov- 
ing heaven and earth to provide for the appointment of a State Commission to take 
over the wharves and landings. 

The same organization, in 1897, took the initiative for the improvement of South- 
west Pass, the natural outlet of the Mississippi, so that it could be adapted to all 
possible demands for ocean commerce. The Belt Line m,easure is a result in great 
part of the efforts of the Board of Trade; and the Cotton "Warehouse, the Grain 
Elevator, and many other improvements in the handling of commerce must be re- 
garded as the outcome of patient effort on the part of this organization. 


The famous clubs of the old days before the war had their day and passed; most 
of them giving up their existence because the gallant young men. and the older 
ones as well, had marched away to the front. Among them came what is the oldest 
club of the city; the Boston Club, 824 Canal street, housed in what was once the 
residence of Dr. Mercer, the intimate friend and often the host of Henry Clay. 

The Boston Club was organized in 1845 by thirty leading mercantile and pro- 
fessional gentlemen, heads of families, yet full of good-fellowship and fond of the 
good old game of Boston. It was in honor of this game that the club was chris- 
tened. John Hewlett was the first president, and its first quarters were in the old 
postoffice building in Royal street. Afterward it moved to a building in Canal 
street, and at the outbreak of the war the limit of membership had been reached. 
During the Butler regime in the city the club quarters were closed by order of the 
Provost Marshal, and there was no more Boston Club until 1867, when it was re- 
organized, and took up its headquarters in a building in Carondelet street. It was 
some years later that the present home of the club was secured. 

The Boston Club is noted for its hospitality, and the members exercise the privi- 
lege of inviting their friends. Officers of the army and navy are guests of the club 
during their stay in the city. Many distinguished men have been entertained there, 
among them being: Jefferson Davis and General U. S. Grant; and among the mem- 
bers and leaders of the old days were the srallant Confederate Gen-erals Dick Tay- 
lor, John R. Grymes, T. J. Semmes and Jndah P. Benjamin. 




It was upstairs over the Gem, in Royal street — one of the historic buildings of 
the city — that about fifty gentlemen assembled in 1857 to organize the Pickwiclt Club. 
Pickwick Papers had been adding to the gaiety of the nations for twenty years; and 
in memory of that immortal book these fifty members devoted their club to good- 
fellowship and friendliness. It was somewhat different from its great progenitor. It 
did not "go in for science." The first president of the club was General A. H. Glad- 
den, of South Carolina; a distinguished officer of the Mexican war, and destined to 
fall at Shiloh; but Shiloh was not dreamed of in those first merry years of the 
Pickwick Club. 

The first home of the club was in St. Charles street; then it moved to the corner 
of Canal and Exchange Alley and fitted up beautiful club rooms; apd still later it 
owned the building, now a drygoods store, at the corner of Canal and Carondelet. 
The present building. No. 1028 Canal street, was erected for the club after the 
former home had been partially destroyed by fire. The club rooms are decorated 
with fine works of art, statues, bronzes and beautiful pictures. 

Young" Men's Gymnastic Club. 


At 224 North Rampart is the home of the Young Men's Gymnastic Club, a 
beautiful building which is thoroughly appointed, and which boasts of its marble 
swimming pool as one of the most delightful accessories. The club was organized 
in 1872, but for some years it bore the name of the Independent Gymnastic Club. 
The new name was taken on about the time it took possession of the present club 
building; and the new home deserved a fitting celebration, in change of name or 

The splendidly appointed gymnasium is especially to be noted in connection with 
this building; and the added fact that it was here John L. Sullivan trained for his 
fights with Kilrain and Corbett. 


This club, with attractive clubhouse in Jackson avenue, near Prytania street, 
has a membership exclusively of gentlemen following intellectual callings, col- 
lege pi-ofessors, physicians, lawyers, artists, ministers, etc. 


This is one of the city's old and exclusive social organizations with club 
rooms at Canal and Carondelet street. The club conducts the Mardi Gras parade 
of Momus. 






Some time during: last May, 1916, an interesting event occurred with Lali;e Pont- 
cliartrain as the scene of action. 

The Southern Yacht Club held its sixty-sixth annual regatta. 

From the very beginning of its history. New Orleans has been given over to 
water sports. The little city had the river in front of it, the lake at its back, and 
in every direction spread bayous and rivers, lakes and canals. There were many 
years when the builder of boats was the most important man in the city; and boats 
of every kind were as much sought after as automobiles are today. It was natural, 
therefore, that men who did not have to follow the sea or the lakes for profit would 
follow them for pleasure; and that in the course of time they would effect an or- 
ganization and have a clubhouse, with all the accessories of water-sports. 

Therefore, out at West End one finds the Southern Yacht Club's headquarters. 

The second yacht club organized in the United States was the Southern Yacht 
Club. It began its existence in 1841; but it was not till 1878 that the organization 
had a clubhouse of its own, which was nearly on the site of the present building. 
The Clubhouse of today was erected in 1900; but it would hardly be recognized as 
the same. A large sum of money has been spent on improving and remodeling the 
building, which is now an extremely attractive clubhouse, with a delightful paved 
road sweeping up to its very doors. The membership numbers more than a tliou- 
sand, and among the membe s are owners of very handsome yachts. Boat races of 
every kind, rowing races, motor-boat races and regattas, make up the annual pro- 
grams; and it is probable that the members of this club get more real pleasure out 
of life than most of the other clubmen of New Orleans. 

Across the g;rounds at the right from tlie clubhouse is the boat pen, where all 
the craft belonging to the members may be drawn aside, safe from wind and storm. 

Harmony Club. 


In St. Charles avenue, at the corner of Jackson, stands the handsome home of 
a Jewish orgajiization, the Harmony Club. This beautiful building is of white 
m.arble, and attracts the attention of every passer; being especially attractive when 
it is lighted at night. The club was organized in 1862, and the building was erected 
in 1896. This is one of the favorite places for viewing the Mardi Gras parades, by 
tTie Jewish community; and the galleries which they erect for that occasion are 
crowded with the members of the club and their families and friends during the 
two days of merry-making while the entire front of the building is decorated most 
effectively with electric lights. 






This is one of the leading social organizations of New Orleans, owning a 
splendid clubhouse with golf course and tennis courts near the intersection of 
Metairie avenue and the New Basin canal. The site, of some eighty acres, was 
long occupied by the Oakland Driving Park and is admirably situated for its 
new purpose. 


The site of this club is Metairie avenue and Seventeenth street, separated 
from the New Orleans Country Club grounds by Metairie avenue. Both organi- 
zations are exclusive in membership and strictly private. 


The New Orleans Press Club was organized two years ago, with headquarters 
at 117 St. Charles street. The membership is made up of newspaper men, with 
business men as associate members; and there is a visiting membership made 
up of out-of-town newspaper men. The membership is limited in number. 


The Stratford Club, a private club w^ith a limited membership, is located at 313 
St. Charles street. This club is about twenty-one years old. 

Young- Men's Hebrew Association Building- "The Athenaeum.' 


At the corner of St. Charles avenue and Clio street is the home of the Young 
Men's Hebrew Association, one of the most attractive of all the club buildings. In 
1907 this building was erected to take the place of an older and smaller building 
which was destroyed by fire. The Athenaeum, which is the great auditorium on the 
second floor, is the place where the music-lovers of the city gather to hear some of 
the greatest musicians of the world at the concerts given by the Philharmonic So- 
ciety. It is also the scene of many social functions; and it is to be noted that wed- 
dings and dances given by Jewish families are often held at the Athenaeum on ac- 
count of the greater space afforded by this beautiful hall. It is here that many of 
the Mardi Gras balls are held, including of recent years the great Rex ball, the popu- 
lar climax of the Mardi Gras festivities. 

The Young Men's Hebrew Association is noted for the welfare work it carries 
forward among the less fortunate class of its own people; and there are few oc- 
casions when one may not find classes in session, children playing games or boys 
in the swimming pool. 



In the fall of 1880, a number of citizens who were fond of the good old game 
of chess, and had not been able to effect a permanent organization for the enjoy- 
ment of that game, met and debated the founding of a club with rooms of its own. 
In order to secure a larger membership, tw^o other games were included — checkers 
and w^hist. The club opened with fifty-two members; and for several years, with the 
lists constantly growing it moved from place to place, always intent on securing 
more room; until finally, in 1883, the club took possession of its present quarters 
at the corner of Canal and Baronne streets. 

This club has grown steadily, until now it has a membership of a thousand. It 
is purely a social club; but it has attracted great interest in the city through the 
chess tournaments which have been held in its splendid rooms. These tournaments 
have brought to the city many of the most renowned chess players in the world, 
and affairs of international interest have held the limelight in the New Orleans 
Chess, Checkers and Whist Club. Among the membership are a number of expert 
players, who are devoted to chess; and spend all their leisure time at this fasci- 
nating game. 


In St. Charles street, between Julia and St. Joseph, may be found the substan- 
tial brick building, with a gymnasium at the side, forming the home of the 
Young Men's Christian Association. This place has its parlors, reading-rooms, 
libraries, gymnasium, sw^imming pool, and other advantages, for the benefit, not 
only of the young men of the city but of Christian young men visiting New Or- 
leans, among strangers and with no home surroundings. There are also bedrooms, 
and the young man who is a member of the Y. M. C. A. in his home city has but 
to present his membership card at the desk in this building and he will be wel- 
comed and made to feel at home; while every effort is made to throw a safeguard 
around all young men, whether or not they are members of the organization. 


In Common street, half a block from Baronne, the Young Women's Christian 
Association has established itself, and is w^inning its way. In this place meals 
are offered practically at cost to working women and girls; there are parlors 
and reading rooms, where they may rest for a little while; there is a large gym- 
nasium, which offers health and strength to women and girls who are over- 
worked and have little chance for exercise; and there are evening lectures or 
classes which give to the working girl advantages for education and training 
which she could not obtain in any other way. The railroad stations all have 
placards urging young girls traveling alone to go to the Y. W. C. A., where they 
will be sure of safety and of desirable surroundings. 


At the corner of Camp and South streets is the Christian Woman's Exchange, 
founded in 1880, and said to be the first of its kind in the United States to prove 
a. success. In this place all varieties of woman's work are offered for sale, and 
opportunity is given for many a homekeeping -woman to make herself fairly inde- 
pendent by the sale of things w^hich she can make at home. In the upper floors 
there are bedrooms, where women traveling alone may find a temporary resting- 
place, or where they may reside permanently at small expense. There is a restau- 
rant w^hich is well patronized. 


The Era Club, the leading suffrage organization of the city, has headquarters 
at 417 Camp street. This club has for many years taken an active part in influ- 
encing civic and state affairs, and has been instrumental in bringing about re- 
forms, quite independent of the suffrage question. 


Between Julia and Girod streets, fronting St. Charles, is the massive red build- 
ing known as the Washington Artillery Hall. 

Washington Artillery was organized in 1838, as the Native American Artillery, 
but in 1841 it attached itself to the Wlashington Battalion. Three years later th* 
battalion was augmented by the transfer from the Louisiana Legion of three com- 
panies, the Orleans Cadets, the Louisiana Greys and the Orleans Grenadiers. The 
battalion became known at that time as the "Washington Regiment, with General 
I'ersifer F. Smith as the commanding officer. In 1845, when the "Army of Occupa- 
tion," under General Zachary Taylor, was dispatched to Texas, General Gains 
Issued a call for troops; the "Washington Battalion responded, and went to Mexico 
and fought in many important battles — so that it was in Mexico they won their 
spurs. Soon after the regiment took the name of ""Washington Artillery." 

This battalion was among the first to respond to the call for troops at the 
outbreak of the Civil war. It was mustered into service in historic Lafayette 
Square, which has seen so many stirring sights; and it marched from the square to 
old Christ Church, at the corner of Canal and Bourbon, and received a beautiful 
flag presented by the ladies of New Orleans — Judah P. Benjamin, the silver-tongued 
orator, making "the presentation. The command fired the first gun at Bull Run 
and brought up the rear at Appomattox. During the war it took part in sixty 
battles; lost 139 men killed and had 160 wounded. 





Shriner's Temple, St. Charles Avenue and Clio Street. 

Scottish Bite Cathedral. 


After the war the men returned to their ruined homes; but they did not forget 
the old ties. During the Reconstruction era they were not allowed to continue 
their military organization, so they took the name of a benevolent association, 
whose object was to care for the needy and bury the dead. The handsome monu- 
ment in Metairie Cemetery tells its own story. 

Before the war the company's arsenal was located in Girod street; but this 
building was confiscated during the war, and when they returned they found 
themselves homeless. 

The building now occupied by the Washington Artillery was erected in 1872 as, 
a place of exhibit for all the articles manufactured in the South. The Washington 
Artillery acquired it in 1880. The upper floor contains an immense ballroom, in 
which the Rex ball was held, and the lower floor is occupied by the arrxiory and 
meeting room of the Washington Artillery. 

Among the guns parked there will be seen two mountain howitzers which 
were manned by the Metropolitan Police in the battle of September 14, 1874, and 
were captured by the White League. Other historic cannons, flags and paintings; 
the catafalque on which the body of Jefferson Davis was borne to the grave, and 
many other mementos of the war and its great men are preserved in the armory. 


The Naval Brigade, or more familiarly, the "Naval Reserve," dates its or- 
ganization back to 1895; and its home is the beautiful armory at 831 Camp street. 
There are large grounds in the rear for drill and recreation, and the armory 
is very thoroughly equipped. During the Spanish-American war the reserves did 
valiant service, and showed themselves to be tried and true, ready for every emer- 
gency that might arise. The Stranger is their training ship. 


The Masonic Temple, at the corner of St. Charles and Perdido streets, had its 
foundations laid in 1891. From a very early date the Masonic order had a foot- 
hold in New Orleans, and it is a matter of record with the order that a Masonic 
Lodge was established here in 1793. The new temple is a very striking building, 
Its topmost pinnacle surmounted by a bronze statue of Jacques de Molay, the last 
of the Knights Templar, whose unhappy fate it was to die by torture 600 years ago. 

In this building the Masonic order of New Orleans pursues its quiet way, 
doing its work for charity and for the help of mankind so unostentatiously that no 
hint of It ever reaches the outside world. 


In Carondelet street, between Lafayette and Girod, stands one of the historic 
buildings of this city — now the Scottish Rite Cathedral — once the old Carondelet 
Street Methodist Church. 

The fi,rst Methodist organization was formed in 1825, and met in a warehouse 
in Poydras street. Afterward it moved to a frame building in Gravier street, until 
it was able to put up a church. This first church stood at the corner of Poydras 
and Carondelet; but unfortunately it was destroyed in the great fire of 1850, and 
for two years the homeless congregation met in the loft of the Carrolton Railway 
Company's barn on the corner of Poydras and Baronne streets. That a better home 
Tvas provided was due to a new pastor. Rev. J. C. Keener, afterwards one of the 
^honored bishops of the Methodist Church. Through his agency a new church was 
Sjegun on Carondelet street. 

The massive walls of the church had been raised, and the roof put on, and the 
•congregation were looking forward to having a home of their own in a short time, 
when there was a catastrophe that shocked the entire city. The entire roof fell in. 
There had been some fault in the construction, which led to the calamity; but it 
■v\-as evident that the fault did not extend to the walls, for not a brick was mis- 
placed. A new roof was set in the place of the one that had fallen, and whatever 
defects the first one had were not duplicated in the second, for it is matter of his- 
tory that it stayed out its allotted time. 

And here was the Carondelet Street Church housed for many a long year^ 
until those in authority felt that the trend of the residence district had been up- 
town, and that it would be well to follow it. Therefore the old church was sold to 
the Scottish Rite Masons, who altered the front and adapted the building to their 
needs and the congregation was housed in a new building in St. Charles, near the 
corner of Calliope street. 


Just opposite the Terminal Station is a space that once formed part of Basin 
street; but it has won the later name of Elk place. A pretty strip of park runs 
down the middle of it, and midway of that park stands a bronze elk. head in air, 
listening. Directly across from the statue is the home of the order of Elks in New 
Orleans; and it is here that the B. P. O. E. have their meetings, that the incidents 
of their club life take place; that they devise their noteworthy charities, and that 
they hold their annual Memorial Days. The organization is a very strong one in 
New Orleans and has recently voted to erect a superb clubhouse on its present site 
to give fully twice its present floor space and with many added features. The New 
Orleans organization is numerically the second largest in the United States and has 
long exercised a powerful influence in the national order. 



Kuig-hts of Columbus Hall. 


In Carondelet street, between Julia and St. Joseph, stands a building with 
front of classic design. This is the Knights of Columbus Hall — once the Touro 
Synagogue. When Judah Touro bought the old Christ Church in Canal street, he 
gave it to the Congregation Dispersed of Judah as their synagogue. The congre- 
gation occupied it for some years, but finally they removed to a new building 
in Carondelet street, the plan of which had been copied from the original church; 
and that is the building which has passed to the Knights of Columbus. The 
Jewish congregation has moved to the corner of St. Charles and Berlin. The 
main building is used for entertainments, lectures, etc., and the smaller building 
on the uptown side is a clubhouse. 


In St. Charles avenue, not far above Lafayette Square, stands the old building, 
now occupied by the "Woodmen of the World, which was for many years the Frank- 
lin School, and which was known as the oldest public school building in this city. 
It was erected in 1840, therefore it may be said that the years since that date have 
been busy ones in school-building. Out of that tim,e, too, must be taken the years 
of the Civil war, and a number of years immediately following, when the people 
of New Orleans were too poor and too much troubled to build schools. 

During the school session just passed eighty-eight schools were in session in 
New Orleans, including one normal school, three high schools, one trade school for 
girls, sixty-five elementary schools for whites and sixteen for negroes; one special 
school for delinquent white boys and one for delinquent negro boys. Besides these 
there was a class for deaf children operated in one of the schools and a class for 
defectives in another. 

The total value of the school buildings, sites and furnishings is estimated at 

In addition to the buildings owned by the city, schools are conducted in twelve 
rented buildings. 

Tear by year new buildings are added, and every year the demand for more 
room increases. 

The teaching corps includes 1350 teachers, of whom 1243 are in the day schools 
and 107 are in the evening schools. 

And 49,166 pupils attended the various public schools of the city! 

Here and there, all over the city, one will find handsome new school buildings 
consecrated to the grammar grades. Since the erection of the Beauregard School, 
built of tan and cream-colored brick, that idea has been carried out in most of 
the new school buildings; and it may be said that they are all modern in construc- 
tion, enabodying the latest discoveries in sanitation and comfort. 


Girls' Higrh School, Esplanade Avenue. 



Sophie B. Wrig-ht Hig-h School. 



Boys' Hig-h School. 

fe Uptown, in Napoleon avenue, at the corner of Prytania, stands the Sophie B. 
^V^ight High School, which took the place of the old structure in Jackson avenue. 
In Esplanade avenue is its counterpart, the Lower Girls' High School; a great 
change from the old residence in the same avenue which housed that interesting 
school for a number of years. In Canal street is the magnificent building dedicated 
to the Boys' High School, an enormous contrast to the cramped quarters this school 
occupied in Calliope street. These are all new buildings, and are a source of pride 
and pleasure to the city, which appreciated the great need of them. 

One of the interesting schools of the city is the Francis T. NichoUs Industrial 
School, at which young girls are trained in millinery, dressmaking, cooking and 
all kinds of housewifely arts. This school has shown by the splendid work of the 
graduate pupils that it is answering a great need, and that it will result in the 
building of better homes and more efficient womanhood. 

One of the most important of the schools which is still to be erected is to be 
the Manual Training School for Boys, made possible to the city through the mu- 
nificence of Isaac Delgado, a wealthy citizen, who left a large sum to build and 
equip this institution. Among the assets to be devoted to this purpose is a sugar 
plantation, and this has placed the city of New Orleans in a unique position as 
owner of a sugar plantation. 

The visitor to the city will be interested in the ever-recurrent nam,e of Mc- 
Donogh on the fronts of many of the public schools. This occurs from the fact 
that a wealthy man, a bachelor, who died in this city many years ago, left several 
million dollars to be divided between New Orleans and Baltimore for the buiding 
of schools. As the interest on the McDonogh fund was to be devoted to this pur- 
pose, and the principal guarded, it has followed that from time to time a new 
school is added to the list; so that McDonogh Schools No. 1, No. 2 and on to Mc- 
Donogh No. 32 are devoted to the cause of education in New Orleans. 


One of the interesting departments of the public school system is the Behrman 
Gymnasium, Washington avenue and Prytania. This building was erected for the 
Southern Athletic Club, which occupied it for a number of years, ancj "pulled off" 
a number of interesting events here. It is recorded that in 1889 Kilrain trained 
in the gymnasium for his fight with Sullivan; and in 1892 Corbett made this his 
training quarters for his fight with the same athletic hero. It is not given over 
to the heroes of the ring now. Boys from the public schools perform daring stunts 
on the bars and rings and other contrivances, or make spectacular dives in the 
swimming pool; and incidentally learn to give first aid to the injured, and accom- 
plish wonders in the learning. The girls of the public schools have their days in 
the gymnasium also, and some of them have distinguished themselves by their 



Beaureg-ard School, Canal Street. 

T. W. Tilton Memorial Iiibrary, Tulane University. 


quickness in learning and their deftness "in performing life-saving work. The gym- 
nasium is a much-prized institution, and is used the pupils of the schools 
as an incentive to labor. One must make such and such a grade, or his leacner 
gives him no admit card to the gymnasium. 


Opposite Audubon Park, fronting St. Charles avenue and running a long way 
back toward the lake, stands the substantial group of buildings which make up 
Tulane University. 

Once this was the University of Louisiana. It came into existence in 1834, when 
the Medical College of Louisiana, now the School of Medicine, was created. An- 
other department — that of law, was established in 1847. 

During the same year, an effort was made to establish an academic depart- 
ment, and indeed it was opened, but had an unsatisfactory career, and was closed 
in 1859. 

The war swept the country, and put an effectual quietus on all further attempts 
to establish this department until 1876; and after the struggle for a school began, 
the doors were not really opened until 1878. 

The university went on, under great difficulties, until 1884; and then it was 
that the Tulane donation led to a change of name and the reorganization of the 
institution under the nam,e it still bears. 

The time had been when Paul Tulane was a merchant of New Orleans, and 
though he had taken up his habitation in Princeton, N. J., his heart was siill with 
the city in which he had lived so long. He gave the greater part of his fortune, 
amounting to $1,050,000, to the Board of Administrators of the Tulane Educational 
Fund, for the education of white youth in Louisiana. On that same year the 
board took over the University of Louisiana and gave it Mr. Tulane's name. 

Colonel William Preston Johnston was selected the first president of the institu- 
tion as reorganized, and for the first time the great university set out upon its 
work, unhampered by the mere struggle for existence. 

One of the greatest incidents in the career of the university occurred in 1886 
when Mrs. Josephine L. Newcomb found the Sophie Newcomb Memorial College 
for Women, as a department of the university, with gifts and bequests that 
amounted to nearly three million dollars. 

In 1906 the New Orleans Polyclinic became the Graduate School of Medicine; 
and in 1909 the New Orleans College of Dentistry became the Tulane School of 
Dentistry. In 1912 the School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine — one of the most 
valued departments of the university — was organized; followed by the College of 
Commerce and Business Administration — in 1914. 

The Colleges of Arts and Sciences, and Technology, the graduate department, 
the College of Law, the first and second years of the School of Medicine, the 
School of Pharmacy and the first two years of the School of Dentistry are in 
St. Charles avenue. Students of the third and fourth years of the School of Medi- 
cine, the third year of the School of Dentistry, the stuaents of the Graduate School 
of Medicine and of the School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine are taught in 
the Hutchinson Memorial building on Canal street, in close proximity to the Char- 
ity Hospital, the unrivalled facilities of which are freely used in instruction. The 
College of Commerce and Business Administration holds its day courses in Gibson 
Hall, at the university, and its night courses in the ,hall of the Association of Com- 
merce, at the corner of St. Charles and Common streets. 

The grounds of Tulane University extend over a mile in depth, with a frontage 
of about six hundred feet in St. Charles avenue. About one hundred acres of this 
great tract have been set aside as a campus, and on it the following buildings have 
been erected: Gibson Hall, the main building, named in honor of General Randall 
Lee Gibson, United States senator and first president of the Board of Adminis- 
trators; the Physical Laboratory; the Richardson Chemical Building; a group of 
engineering buildings, consisting of the experimental engineering, electrical en- 
gineering, and mechanics' arts laboratories, and drawing rooms; the Richardson 
Memorial Building; the Stanley Thomas Hall; the dining hall; the gymnasium, and 
the F. W. Tilton Memorial Library, with its annex. 

This beautiful library building was donated to the university by Mrs. Caroline 
Stannard Tilton as a memorial to her Jiusband. It affords ample space for the 
magnificent library, and for the Linton-Surget Art Collection, the Tilton collection 
of statues and other objects of art. and Mrs. Samuel H. Kennedy's loan collection 
of art. 

The upper floor of Gibson Hall contains the university museum, with excellent 
departments of anthropology, zoology, botany, palenthology, geology and min- 
sralogy. Here is housed the Gustave Kohn collection of natural history of Louisi- 
ana, and contains fifteen thousand specimens. 

The Stanley Thomas Hall was acquired by the university through the benefi- 
cence of Mr. Stanley O. Thomas. This is a department of the College of Technology 
and is a three-story fire-proof brick and reinforced concrete building. 

In the rear of the campus are the athletic grounds, covering about six acres; 
and money is in hand for the erection of a stadium; something which the students 
and the public have greatly desired. Great enthusiasm was manifested on "Realiza- 
tion Day," on which many citizens and numbers of the Newcomb students worked 
to raise this sum; and when the stadium is completed Tulane athletics will take 
on new life. 



Hutcliiusoii Memorial Medical School. 


In Canal street, between Villere and Robertson, stands the Josephine Hatchin- 
son Memorial, a department of Tulane University. It is here that the students 
take the last two years of their medical course; the first two years being housed 
on the Tulane Campus. 

The Hutchinson Memorial Building was erected in 1894 by Mrs. Ida Richardson 
as a memorial to her husband. Dr. T. B. Richardson. For several years it was 
known as the Richardson Memorial Medical School. In 1908 it was sold to the 
Hutchinson Fund, and the Richardson Memorial was established at the Uni- 
versity, so that the first two years' course is given in the Richardson Memorial 


One of the most picturesque buildings in the upper portion of the city is H. 
Sophie Newcomb Memorial College, to quote its full name; affectionately known all 
over the South as "Newcomb." It stands today as the lovely memorial of a lovely 
young life, which went out before it had touched the borders of womanhood. 
Sophie Newcomb was a girl of fifteen when she "fell asleep"; and in memory of 
her the young girl's mother, Mrs. Josephine LeMonnler Newcomb, gave $100,000 to 
found this school; afterwards increasing the bequest to $2,800,000. 

The college is one of the departments of Tulane University. 

As now organized it offers regular academic courses leading to the degree of 
Bachelor of Arts, and in connection with these has established four schools: ._ of 
Art, of Education, of Music and of Household Economy, each of which offers 
courses comparable with the best, leading to the award of certificates or diplomas. 
It possesses well equipped laboratories of physics, chemistry, psychology, biology, 
domestic science and art, besides ample studio facilities in fine arts and music. Its 
library for general service contains about 14,000 carefully selected volumes, in ad- 
dition to which each of the several schools is provided with an ample collection 
of works and periodicals in its own subject. The psychological laboratory is pre- 
pared to carry on work in the clinical examination of children, and has already 
completed a large number of records in connection with the work of the School of 
Education and in the public schools of New Orleans. In its School of Art it has 
developed the application of designs to various crafts as pottery, embroidery, 
jewelry, china, painting, metal and glass, book-binding, etc., and it is the intention 
to add other forms of applied art whenever the demand may justify it. The New- 
comb art products are always made from original designs, so that duplicates are 
not to be found, and they are sold by agents in all the large cities of the United 
States and Canada. ' The samples of art products — pottery, jewelry, embroidery de- 
sign — have won medals at many expositions; and the Pan-American at San Fran- 
cisco in 1914 awarded to this school the only Grand Prix for such work. The 
School of Music offers student recitals each week which are open to the public, 
and public concerts of university chorus and orchestra assisted by artists engaged 
for the purpose. 




Student life at Newcomb has many outlets besides those offered by the labora- 
tory, library and class room. Various college and university publications are sup- 
ported and maintained by the students. Debating, glee and dramatic clubs have a 
large membership and active life. Physical training and exercise is required of all 
students. Out-of-door sports are encouraged and carefully regulated, and on account 
of the ideal winter climate, prevail. The game of "Newcomb" and the "Newcomb 
Rules" for basket ball, both specially devised here as appropriate for girls and 
women, have found favor and acceptance widely throughout the country on account 
of their hygienic value. 

In the college and residences student self-government prevails. High stand- 
ards of honor both in relation to their work and to one another are required and 
enforced when necessary. No one who is deficient in class work is permitted to hold 
office in a student organization, or to take part in any public performance which 
represents them. Each resident student is required to attend the church to which she 
belongs or with which she is affiliated; chapel service of a non-sectarian character 
is held each morning, and is well attended. The Young Women's Christian Associa- 
tion maintains a thriving organization. 

The principal buildings of the college are located in a large square of ground 
containing about three and a half acres, beautified with noble oaks and palms. For 
several years past it has been evident that Newcomb could no longer develop prop- 
erly in its present narrow confines. Steps, therefore, have been taken to provide 
for it a more extensive and suitable site. About thirty acres of ground have been 
secured on Audubon Place and Broadway, in the most desirable residence section 
of the city, and plans for new buildings have been drawn to accommodate a new 
Newcomb; it is expected that the work of construction will shortly be begun. The 
proposed buildings are as follows: Residences for the accommodation of four hun- 
dred boarding students; a central building to accommodate the offices of adminis- 
tration and the principal academic classes; a building for the scientific labora- 
tories; one for household economy; one for music including a hall for recitals and 
concerts; class room for instruction, and practice rooms for students; an art build- 
ing with hall for student and public lectures, galleries for display of student work 
and loan collections, besides the necessary studios, class rooms and work shops for 
carrying on the required courses; a chapel; a gymnasium; a library; and ulti- 
mately a building for general assembly. The cost of these is expected to aggregate 
$1,500,000, but not all of them will be erected immediately. When completed they 
will offer accommodation for 1000 or 1200 students in the various courses of study, 
distributed in the same proportion as at present. 


One of the notable schools in the city is the Newman Manual Training School. 
This school was made possible through the beneficence of the late Isidore Newman. 
There students of both sexes and of all beliefs are taught to be self-supporting as 
wU as to have a large and accurate knowledge of text books. So popular has 
this school become that the registration lists have to be closed before the school 
actually opens every year. 


In the heart of the beautiful Garden District of New Orleans, opposite Audubon 
Park, and adjoining Tulane University is the youngest of the great educational 
Institutions of New Orleans. 

In this section once stretched the broad acres of the Foucher plantation, 
owned by Paul Foucher, who married the daughter of Etienne de Bore. Part of 
this estate was acquired for the Society of Jesus by Mr. White, now chief justice 
of the United States Supreme Court, on December 28, 1899. One evidence of the 
great advance in values in the upper portion of the city is shown by the fact that 
this tract, and a portion since acquired by Tulane, in all measuring 447 feet in St. 
Charles avenue and 12,196 feet back from the avenue, was purchased for $22,500. 
The upper line of the property was known as Burtheville, and lower as 

In May, 1892, the residence of the Holy Name of Jesus was formally opened, 
with Rev. John Downey as superior and Revs. Joseph Gerlach and Brothers John 
Doherty and Peter Morge as assistants. The next day mass was said for the first 
time in the parish church, which had been erected at the expense of the Society 
of Jesus. 

The first honored superior has been followed by Rev. Paul Faget, who was suc- 
ceeded in his turn by Rev. Marcellus Janin, and he by Rev. Albert Biever. In Sep- 
tember of 1904, Loyola College, at the rear of the church, was opened as a select day 

An incident in which the whole city was interested, regardless of creed, was 
the breaking of the ground for the Burke Memorial Seismographical Observatory, 
in March, 1910. This is the only seismograph in the state, and the people at 
large have taken the deepest interest in the records made J)y this wonderful in- 
vention. In July of that year the doors of the observatory were thrown open 
to the public for the first time; and on the same day the foundations of 
Marquette Hall were begun. The cornerstone of the hall was laid and blessed 
and the ground broken for Thomas Hall in November of the same year. 

The inauguration of classes, the dedication of Thomas Hall, the first mass 
in the chapel, all followed in due course. The charter of the university was 
approved by the State Legislature. The Jesuit community took possession of 




its new home. The Bobet Library, the gift of Mr. Edward J. Bobet, of New 
Orleans, was fitted up. The New Orleans College of Pharmacy v/as affiliated 
with Loyola. 

In March, 1913, a donation of $100,000 was given to erect a new church, 
in memory of Thomas McDermott, and later, the donor, Miss Kate McDermott, 
added $50,000 to the original bequest. During the same month, Rev. Alphonsus B. 
Otis was appointed rector of Loyola University. 

Other milestones in the progress of the university have been the opening of 
the law department and of the dental department; the affiliation of the Post Grad- 
uate Medical School of New Orleans with Loyola University; tlie opening of a 
school of midwifery — the second of its kind in the United States — and the opening 
of a course in wireless telegraphy. 

The architecture of this interesting pile of buildings is Tudor Gothic, and 
the buildings are constructed of limestone and fireproof brick of a dark and 
rich red color. 


Almost ever since there has been a New Orleans there has been an Ursulines' 
School. In 1727 a band of Ursuline nuns arrived in the little village Bienville had es- 
tablished, with the purpose of educating the girls of the community. Work was be- 
gun on a convent and school building in Conde street — now Chartres — and in the 
meantime the nuns were settled at the corner of Conde and Bienville. When their 
home was finished they took possession of it, and there they lived their quiet lives 
and taught the girls for ninety-four years — until the youngest of their first band 
of pupils had long since passed away, and their grandchildren had come to take 
their places. The nuns were in this home during the battle of New Orleans, and 
prayed so long and hard for the success of the Americans that they have always 
believed the success of Jackson and his men was due to the intervention of the 
Virgin as a result of those earnest prayers. 

But in the course of time, when the century had almost run its round, the Ursu- 
lines found another location, where they could have larger grounds and be further 
away from the din of traffic in what had become the business part of the city. They 
m-oved to a beautiful place, down the river, not far above the Barracks; and there 
the quiet years went on, while they continued to give themselves up to the 
training of young girls. 

It was the river that drove them from this pleasant home. The river began 
to eat its way into and under the levees, so that it was necessary to move them fur- 
ther back, and in order to effect this the property of the Ursulines and many other 
beautiful places had to be sacrificed. Tlien it was that the Ursuli^es established 
themselves in their magnificent new home in State street, not far from South Clai- 

The Ursulines have made their most important move, which has brought them 
into one of the most beautiful buildings in the city, and has given them every ad- 
vantage of location and equipment. And here, as in other places, the quiet years 
will go on, while they teach the young girls committed to their charge. 


Visitors from other sections of the country are surprised to find that among the 
educational institutions of New Orleans are two high-grade schools for negroes — the 
New Orleans University and Stj^aight University. 

The latter school, which is at 2436 Canal street, was provided for negroes of 
New Orleans through the generosity of a wealthy philanthropist of the East, who 
gave the institution his name; and there many young negro men and women are 
learning to find their place and their work in the world. This school is said to pos- 
sess unusual merit as an educational factor, and is doing its part in the making 
of good citizens as well as in communicating the lore of textbooks. 


In Howard avenue, near Lee Circle, stands a large building of red stone — the 
Howard Memorial Library. 

In 1888 Miss Annie Howard, of this city, presented this building, which cost 
$115,000, books to the number of eight thousand, and a large sum of money, for 
the purpose of creating a Reference Library for the city of New Orleans. 

The architecture of the building will attract the attention of everyone who 
passes. Richardson, the noted architect, who was of Louisiana birth, created a 
special style for public buildings of importance — a style which was, fortunately, 
chosen for the Howard Memorial Library. It is a most attractive "building, well 
worthy of the priceless material which it enshrines. 

During the first few years a department of fiction was maintained, but 
afterward this was dropped, and the library entered on the special work of pro- 
viding a place where might be stored information on general subjects, and es- 
pecially on the history of the state of Louisiana. This has been effected, and 
it may be said that the success in this direction is largely due to Librarian 
W^illiam Beer, who has never allowed an opportunity to pass for securing any 
book or manuscript bearing on Louisiana. As a result the library is especially 
rich in literature treating of the earlier settlement of Louisiana. 

However, whatever the subject, one may be sure of finding it set forth in 
this library — history and philosophy, religion and art and science, books in 
English and books in many other languages. The beautiful reading room is 
never without its quiet readers seated at the round tables and poring over 
books while the great clock ticks the silent hours away. 




Frenchmen Street Branch 
Public liihrary. 

Napoleon Branch Public 

New Orleans Public Library. 

Bryades Branch (Negro) 
Public Library, 

Algpiers Branch Public 




Carnegie the giver of library buildings to the woi'ld at large, has not slighted 
New Orleans in the distribution of his gifts. In St. Charles avenue, just above 
Lee Circle, stands a lofty and striking building, uplifted on terraced grounds with 
flights of marble steps springing from terrace to terrace. This is the New 
Orleans Public Library. There are five branch libraries in various parts of town — 
ai Canal and Gayoso; at Frenchmen and Royal; at Napoleon avenue and Camp; 
at Pelican and Belleville, Algiers, and at Philip and Dryades (colored). 

In 1897 the New Orleans Public Library was created by combining the Fisk 
Library and the library of the Lyceum and Library Society. It was housed 
for a while in St. Patrick's Hall, on the site of the new postoffice; and when the 
time came for demolishing that building, it removed to an old residence in Pry- 
tania, near Clio. In 1906 Carnegie gave $250,000 for building this library, with 
additional sums of $25,000 each, given at that and later times, for the five 
branches. The collection in this library comprises 150,000 volumes, many of them 
belonging to the circulating library, while there are thousands of books of 
reference and books in foreign languages. The branch libraries are so disposed 
that many citizens who would find it inconvenient to visit the main library may 
resort to the nearest branch with ease. 

New books are continually being added to those already on the shelves, so 
that the available reading matter is kept thoroughly up to date. Mr. Gill is 
librarian in the main library, with a corps of trained assistants in the various 

Delg-ado Museum of Art, City Park. 


As the City Park is one of the very especial gems of the city, so is the Del- 
gado Museum, the most wonderful and most valuable feature of the beautiful 

A few short years ago, Isaac Delgado gave the city $150,000 with which to 
■erect an Art Museum. He did not wait until after his death and leave it in his 
will, when he would be beyond the pleasure that must come from such a gift. He 
gave it while he was alive. It was a matter of great sorrow to all who knew 
him that he passed over the border just one month before the building was ready 
to be opened; but it had already brought him much joy. 

It was finished; and there was the great Statuary Hall waiting for its array 
of sculpture; and there were the rooms grouped around it, and the imposing 
jsiairway; and the rooms that circled the upper gallery — all ready to be filled. 

It is a matter of note that the collection was very small at first, and that it 
has grown in the most wonderful way. Collection after collection has been 
presented to the museum, to be installed and to give it charm and value. Beau- 
tiful carved furniture, exquisite pieces of tapestry, classic statuary, marvels in 
porcelain and jade and brass and silver — all are there, besides the paintings. 



As for the paintings, tliey liave been gathered up by connoisseurs all over 
Europe, as well as in the United States. One may spend hours wandering from 
room to room and studying the canvases that adorn the walls. 

Besides those that have been given, many collections or individual pieces are 
loaned from time to time, so that the citizens of New Orleans and the visitors to 
the city may have the opportunity to enjoy great works of art. 

The Delgado Museum has greatly enriched the city in a field to which the 
ordinary citizen pays little attention — the spiritual side, the side of fancy and 
imagination and taste — and the donor did a wonderful thing for New Orleans 
when he gave the money which has been devoted to this cause" 

Among the great bequests made to the Museum, by far the most valuable 
was that left by the late Mrs. Chapman H. Hyams, with later editions by Mr. 
Hyams himself. Its value runs into the hundreds of thousands, and it contains 
many masterpieces, especially of the French school. 

The Morgan C. Whitney collection of carved jades and other hard stones 
is another important addition; and the most recent of all is a superb collection 
of Grecian pottery and of ancient glass treasures presented by Alvin Howard. 
There have been many other bequests of rare beauty and value, so that the 
Museum is indeed one of the show spots of the city. 


Memorial Hall. 


In Camp street, near Howaid avenue, stands a red stone building with a mounted 
cannon at one side of the stone steps. This is Memorial Hall, given to the city 
by Frank T. Howard as a Museum in which to enshrine relics of the Confederacy. 

On either side of the door stand logs of wood — sections cut from trees; and 
when the wondering visitor looks a little more closely he will see that the logs are 
crusted with shot and pieces of shell, as a plum pudding is c.usted with plum.s. 
These trees grew on the battlefield of Chickamauga. 

Opposite the door are busts of two generals dear to the heart of every South- 
erner. They represent Stonewall Jackson and Robert E. Lee. Along the upper 
wall are hung what were once flags gay and bright and flaunting in the breeze. 
They are mere tattered rags now, and have been inclosed in nets, so that they 
will not fall quite to pieces. All about the shelves are pathetic memorials of a 
lost cause, and of men who gave their lives for it. No building in the city holds 
more that is of interest to every visitor, young or old. Northern or Southern, than 
this Memorial Hall, which is a Confederate Museum. 

In t.his building are held the meetings of the various organizations of Veterans 
and Sons of Veterans and Daughters of the Confederacy. 



No visitor leaves New Orleans without visiting this Museum. In the first 
place, one would naturally visit the building in which it is housed, the old 
Cabildo, which was erected in 1795 by that Spanish grandee, Don Andres Al- 
monaster y Roxas, for the use of the municipality. The visitor will shudder, no 
doubt, when he views the Mansard roof surmounting that ancient structure, but 
he need not blame Don Aimonaster with that. A flat roof, tile-covered, sur- 
mounted the old structure in the beginning, and the Mansard was an afterthought 
on the part of some unknown who set it there in 1851. 

But at any rate, the Cabildo is the abode of the State Museum; and it is here 
that one may find the history of old Louisiana set forth in priceless souvenirs. 
Most of them are contained in one great room on the second floor — the sala capit- 
ular, in which the Cabildo met during the Spanish regime. Here one finds a thou- 
sand objects cf interest. It may be added that the exhibit which attracts most at- 
tention is the Antommarchi Death Mask of Napoleon. It will be remembered 
that the Greeli physician who was set to attend on the vanquished emporor on St. 
Helena made thre death masks of the silent and unprotesting face; and that 
afterwards, when he came to reside for a w^hile in New Orleans, he presentd one 
of them to this city. 

At the front, the old porch was transformed into a long hall many years ago, 
and in this hall are stored Indian relics in great numbers, together with a fine 
collection of coins. 

The Museum has been greatly enriched by the addition of the city archives 
and other valuable collections, notably that of Mr. G. Cusachs, whose collection 
of rare books and manuscripts 's very valuable. 

Part of the Museum is located in the old Presbytery, which is on the lower side 
of the Cathedral. Here one finds the agricultural exhibits of the state which have 
attracted so much attention at home and abroad; exhibits of Louisiana woods; 
the fauna and flora of Louisiana; especially fine exhibits of birds and insects. 
With these are fine exhibits of Louisiana minerals — sulphur, salt, oil, clay, and 
many others, with their by-products. 


Tulane University has in the upper floor of Gibson Hall a large and valuable 
collection of specimens from, the animal world; skeletons and reproductions in plas- 
ter; fossil and modern, which are of enormous value and interest to the student, 
as well as to the visitor. Many of the specimens in this Museum have been pre- 
sented to the university by men who have spent their lives in making the collec- 
tions, purely for the pleasure it gave them, and who take this means of passing on 
their work to others. It would be difficult to find a time when interested visitors 
are not studying the various objects in this splendid Museum. 


For many years the Medical College of Tulane University has been given won- 
derful opportunities for practical work in the Charity Hospital. As a result, many 
thousands of objects interesting to a physician or surgeon have accumulated in the 
Medical Museum, and this forms a most valuable collection in the w^ork of the 
medical department. Visiting physicians are always eager for the privilege of 
visiting this Museum; a privilege that is readily extended. 


In Jackson avenue, at the corner of Coliseum, stands one of the most notable 
of the Episcopal churches in Nevi^ Orleans — Trinity Church, endeared to many out- 
side of its own congregation because of the great men who have officiated as rec- 
tors of this congregation. This has been called the church which makes bishops, 
as Dr. J. W. Beckwith, afterwards Bishop of Georgia; Dr. Galleher, afterwards 
Bishop of Louisiana; Dr. Hugh Miller, afterwards Bishop of Mississippi; Rev. S. S. 
Harris, afterwards Bishop of Michigan, were among those who passed to the bishop- 
ric after having served Trinity. 

But this church owes its greatest debt of gratitude to Dr. Beverly Warner, who 
received the greater prom.otion, in that he passed to his reward — and it must have 
been a wonderful reward! — while he was rector of Trinity. Dr. Warner did f. 
greater work for humanity during his connection with Trinity than falls to the lot 
of most mortals, and it would be difficult to mention any great movement dating 
back twelve or fifteen years which was not helped forward by this wonderful man. 

Dr. Warner was succeeded by Rev. R. S. Coupland. 


There is no church name which is so inwoven with the history of New Orleans 
as Christ Church. 

There have been four churches of this name in the city; the first one, erected 
in 1816, at the corner of Canal and Bourbon, and demolished in 1833; the second, 
built in 1834, on the opposite corner. In 1845 this site was sold, and a third church 
ferected at the corner of Canal and Dauphine. The fourth Christ Church Cathedral, 
Which stands today, was built in 1887. This church was the outgrowth of the 
^-ealization that New Orleans must have some Protestant house of worship when 
iLouisiana passed into the hands of the United States. In 1805 a meeting was held, 
:^ollowed by many others, looking to an organization and the building of a house 
©f worship. By June of that year enough funds were in hand to make the project 
certain; and then a vote was taken as to the denomination of the new church, 
'fhe Episcopalians were in the majority, and it is a matter of note that the church 



Christ Church Cathearal, St. Charles Avenue. 

officials who were immediately elected voted a salary of $2000 a year to the minister 
who should be sent to them. Rev. Philander Chase led the way for Protestantism 
in New Orleans, under the ecclesiastical government of the Bishop and Convention 
of New York. 

A few years of the life in the new field proved enough for the new minister, or 
perhaps his health suffered. At any rate, he returned 'to New York, and for some 
years the congregation was left to itself, much discouraged, with neither minister 
nor church. 

In 1814 Rev. Mr. Hull took charge of the infant church, and with him are 
associated all the early activities of the little congregation. While this was nomi- 
nally an Episcopal Church, it was open to Protestants of all denominations, and 
for a long time the Presbyterians held their services there. The ne^w minister en- 
deared himself to the people of the entire city, and his death in 1832, after nine- 
teen years of labor among them, was deeply regretted. It had been his fond hope 
to see his people again in a home of their own, but the church was not constructed 
until a few years, after his death. It stood on the corner of Canal and Bourbon, 
as has been said, and was of classic design — a facsimile of the present Knights of 
Columbus Hall in Carondelet street. 

The new church proved to be too "central," and another building was erected, 
less than a block away, at the corner of Canal and Dauphine. Judah Touro bought 
the old Christ Church for the Congregation Dispersed of Judah, and the third Christ 
Church arose, designed by the noted James Gallier. 

But as the years passed it was seen that the site was no place for a church, 
with all its rush and turmoil. Then it was that Christ Church Cathedral was: 
erected, on the corner of St. Charles and Sixth streets. Its vine-wreathed tower 
and arcades attract universal attention and admiration. The Harris Memorial 
Chapel was presented to the Cathedral by Mrs. J. L. Harris in memory of her 
husband; and the same generous donor has given the house in St. Charles avenue, 
occupied by the Bishop, and that on Sixth street, immediately behind the church, 
occupied by the rector. Both these handsome residences communicate with the 
church through the most picturesque of vine-draped cloisters. 



First Presbyterian Cliurcli, facing- Lafayette Square. 


The proper name for this church is "First Presbyterian," but there many among- 
the older citizens who will know it affectionately as Dr. Palmer's Church to the 
end of their lives. This is the church that fronts Lafayette Square, on the uptown 
side. Once it was distinguished by its lofty steeple, but during the storm of Sep- 
tember 29, 1915, this steeple was demolished, and in the repairing it ihas been com- 
pletely remodeled, so that it would hardly be recognized. The congregation of 
this church had its beginning in 1818, when the Connecticut Missionary Society sent 
a missionary, Rev. Sylvester Larned, to preach to the people of New Orleans. The 
city gave a site for a church in St. Charles street, between Union and Gravier, about 
four blocks from the present site, and the new missionary borrowed $40,000 with 
which to erect a building. His successor liquidated the debt by means of a scheme 
of his own, which would not be approved by the Presbyterians of today, and by a 
personal gift of $20,000 from a broad-spirited Jew, Judah Touro, who was his friend. 
There was a division in the church because of this minister. Dr. Clapp, who was 
deposed and who took the larger part of his congregation with him and founded 
the Unitarian Church; nine of the old congregation remained — deprived of minister 
and of church, for Dr. Clapp had kept a firm hold on the church property, which 
had been acquired through his influence. This faithful little band of nine wor- 
shipped in a warehouse on the site of the beautiful church of today. It was in 
those troubled times that Dr. Parker was sent to minister to this little congregation. 
How faithfully he did this work is known to all. Through his efforts a beautiful 
church was built, and when it was destroyed by fire not long after, the present 
church was begun. The roll of members is 600. 

In December, 1856, Rev. B. M. Palmer was called to the pastorate; a man of 
the greatest culture, of the deepest piety; a golden-voiced orator, whose flow of 
simple and beautiful English was as remarkable as his knowledge of ancient lan- 
guages. It was matter of the deepest grief to all classes of citizens when Dr. 
Palmer died. May, 1902, the victim of an unfortunate accident. 

Dr. G. H. Cornelson is the present pastor. 



First Methodist Church, St. Charles Avenue. 


The building- which bears the name of the First Methodist Church is of com- 
paratively recent date, but the church organization is very old. E'or some years it 
was on I'oydras street, and was then merely the Methodist Church, for there was 
no other in the city. Then, in the course of time and after several losses by fire 
and changes from place to place, a house was built for it, through the instrumen- 
tality of a young minister named J. C. Keener, who was afterward a bishop, and 
who died a few years ago, full of years and honors. At that tim.e it became the 
Carondelet Street Methodist Church, and retained that name along with its abiding 
place for more than forty years. When it was built, in Carondelet street, between 
Girod and Lafayette, it was in the heart of the uptown residence district, but as 
time passed the residences moved further uptown, and it was left alone in a section 
filled with business houses. 

When there was talk of following the* congregation uptown it w^as bitterly op- 
posed by many of the members, who felt that this one church should remain in the 
field, as a place to which business men could go for midday services. But the 
majority prevailed. The old church building was sold to the Shriners, and the new 
church was established in St. Charles avenue, near Calliope street, wnerc n might 
be within easy reach of the great boarding-house district, and so be a religious 
home for "the stranger in our midst." 


In Baronne street, between Canal and Common, stands the Jesuits' Church, a 
living example of the old proverb, "All things come to him who waits." Within 
five years after the settling of New Orleans, as has been stated elsewhere, the 
Jesuits came to La Nouvelle Orleans to take over the education of the bovs and 
young men; and a plantation was given them in that wilderness ''above Canal 
street." They were also furnished a residence and were given slaves to cultivate 
the land; and it is a matter of record that they added to this original space until 


their holdings stretched from Common to Felicity, and from the river to Hagan 
avenue. The farm prospered mightily, and the Jesuits introduced into the new 
colony sugar cane, figs and oranges. 

But a long and deadly war was waged betwen the Jesuits and the Capuchins, 
who were also established in the colony, and finally, in July, 1763, the Jesuits were 
expelled from all French and Spanish possessions by the order of the Pope. The 
Papal edict of expulsion is among the archives in the State Museum. In 1848, how- 
ever, tile Jesuits were erecting another chapel on the present site; in the very neigh- 
borhood where thfey had once experimented with that new and little-known agricul- 
tural product, sugar cane. This building was pulled down in 1854, and the present 
building was begun. 

The plans for this church were made by Father Cambiano, a talented Jesuit 
priest, but h.s scheme has never been completely carried out, as the towers in 
front ha\e not been completed. The building is large, and the interior is very 
much admired, with its graceful Moorish arches and its beautiful windows and 
elaborate altar. The statue of the Virgin was ordered by Marie Amelie, Queen of 
France, for the royal chapel in the Tuilleries, but the revolution of 1848 drove the 
Queen from France and caused the statue to be offered for sale. It made its way to 
New Orleans in the possession of a dealer, and was purchased from him for the 
Jesuits' Church. 


In Carondelet street, half a block above Howard avenue, stands one of the most 
impressive buildings in the city devoted to public worship. This is Temple Sinai, 
the older of the two Jewish synagogues. The wide flight of steps leading up to 
the portico, the height and mass.veness of the structure, are very imposing, and 
attract a great deal of attention. This congregation was founded in 1871, with 
Dr. J. K. Gutheim as the first rabbi, a man of great eloquence and learning, and 
among the most distinguished religious leaders of his time. Dr. Max Heller, the 
incumbent, is noted as an eloquent speaker, a man of deep learning, and 
one always at the head of movements for civic beterment or for the uplift of 


The Charity Hosp'.tal, in Tu'ane avenue, between Howard and South Robert- 
son, is one of the largest liosp;tals of its kind in the United States, and is un- 
surpassed in its equipment and the facilities it offers for the study and cure of 

Tne beginnings of th's great work may be traced far back. There was a 
small Cliarity Hospital, then, in Rampart and Toulouse streets, which was said 
to have been founded by a sailor whose name has been lost in the flood of the 
years, but who had doubtless seen such hospitals in many lands and knew the 
utter need for such an institution in a city like New Orleans of the early 
days, where epidemics ran riot and the poor were likely to be neglected. This 
hospital stood for seme years and no doubt accomplished much good for the sor- 
rowful and friendless sick; but in 1779 it was destroyed in a storm. 

And then arose Don Almonaster, the wealthiest and most generous citizen of 
Ijouisiana, and contributed some $114,000 toward building another hospital. It 
was erected in 1784, on the same site, and did its work until 1809, when it was 

It was then determined that the next hospital should be within the city limits 
—for even then Rampart and St. Peter was outside the c'ty — and the city pur- 
chased the square of ground bounded by Canal, Dryades, Baronne and Common 
streets, in what was then ihe City Commons; and in 1816 another Charity Hospital 
was erected. Sixteen years later the state purchased this property for the Uni- 
versity, giving $125,0000; and with the proceeds of this sale a hospital was built 
on Common street, between Howard and Freret. Strange to say, the state of 
Pennsylvania contributed some aid to the building of this hospital, but the state 
of Louisiana bore the greater part of the burden. It is to be remembered that 
Julien Poydras, once mayor of the city, gave $35,000 and another large donation 
came from Etienne de Bore. 

This is tlie hospital of today, as it was started in 1832, when it had only one 
building, the main or central one. Wings have been sent out in every direction, 
with splendid galleries wis ere the convalescents grow well and strong in sun 
and breeze. Through the generosity of Mrs. Richard Milliken. the Milliken Memo- 
rial Hospital was built for the children; and the late A. C. Hutchinson gave the 
Home and Training School for Nurses, which has meant so much to the institu- 
tion. Money left by the will of the late William Richards provided a ward for 
infectious diseases. The operating annex, erected in 1898, was given by Isaac 
Delgado in memory of his brother, the late Samuel Delgado. 

A ward for the treatment of tuberculosis is among the latest additioris to the 


At 731 Carondelet, just above Girod street, stood for some years the New^ 
Orleans Sanitarium — a private hospital, which had been established in 1886. In 
1910 the plant was purchased and a new name placed over the entrance — the 
Presbyterian Hospital; for it had become the property of the Presbyterian Church. 
Since that time it has been so effectively managed that one addition after another 
has been made to its initial capacity, and it now stands among the leading hos- 
pitals of the city. 





A little more than a block above Louisiana avenue, fronting Prytania street, 
is Touro Infirmary. This, hospital covers an entire square of ground; and one 
may be sure that its history is filled with interest. It bears the name of Judah 
Touro, the great Jewish philanthropist, who gave so largely to so many 

In 1850 there was an organization in the city known as the Touro Infirmary 
and Hebrew Benevolent Society. The society was w^orking with some such end 
as this in view, but no doubt it grew discouraged at times because the money 
did not come quickly enough to realize its hopes. It must 'have thrilled and 
touched them immensely when, on a miemorable day, Judah Touro sent them a 
gift of 140,000. At any rate, they took this wonderful gift and started the in- 
firmary with it, in a building at the corner of the Levee and Gaiennie street. 
There the hospital remained, until 1882, when the present site was secured, and 
the hospital m.oved into this beautiful location. 

The attitude of the citizens of New Orleans towards the Touro Infirmary may 
be judged from the mammoth donation that was made to the Touro a few years 
ago, coming from all classes of people and from men and women of all creeds. 

This institution is supported by the Jews, but patients of every belief are 


At the corner of Elk Place and Tulane avenue stands one of the most im- 
portant free hospitals of the city — the Eye, Bar, Nose and Throat Hospital, or as 
it is commonly abbreviated, the Senses' Hospital. 

The city owes this instruction to the devoted and persistent work of the great 
eye specialist, Dr. DeRoaldes. 1889 Dr. DeRoaldes founded this hospital, with- 
out means and without equipment. It was his boast, in after years, that when 
the hospital was started the instruments were sterilized in a washpot. There 
were months and perhaps years of deep discouragement, but Dr. DeRoaldes did 
not belong to that class of men who can be discouraged, or who will give up. 
After awhile, the hospital' was moved to a better place, in Rampart street; and 
still later it was housed in its own pew building, on the present site. This was 
in 1907; and it would be impossible to write of the good that has been done in 
this institution. The most noted specialists of the city, men known as "high- 
priced" specialists, give their time and work to this place without remuneration. 
The best medical and surgical talent in the city is at the service of the man who 
has not a dollar and is out of a job. This institution will be a monument to the 
great specialist who labored so. hard to establish it. 


This hospital is a private institution, under the management of the Sisters of 
St. Vincent de Paul. It stands in Tulane avenue, Bertrand and Johpson streets. 

This hospital was established in 1852, under the auspices of Dr. Warren Stone, 
one of the most distinguished physicians of the old times. It was established in 
a house belonging to him, and he was the first house-surgeon; and it was in this 
hospital that he performed many of his most noted surgical operations. It was 
called at that time the Maison de Sante; and it was not until six years after its 
founding that it received its present name. 

One of the most important additions to the Hotel Dieu during recent years 
has been the Nurses' Home, which has been built with every equipment for the 
comfort and convenience of the nurses in training. 


One of the institutions which has accomplished great good in this city is the 
United States Marine Hospital, situated on the river front below Audubon Park. 
In this beautiful and quiet spot those of the country's seamen who have suffered 
at the hands of evil fortune are taken to be treated, to rest and build up anew 
and be ready to start over again. It is one of the quietest and most restful places 
in the limits of the city, and just to be there should benefit almost any disabled 
seairian. As a matter of fact, many wonderful cures are effected in this lovely 
hospital, where the best nursing and the most skilled medical attention await the 

In the fights New Orleans has had with epidemics, she has received most 
valuable assistance and co-operation from the surgeons in charge at the Marine 


The progress made by the colored people of New Orleans could not be shown 
to better advantage than it is shown in the Flint-Goodrich Hospital, at Canal 
and South Robertson. 

The hospital was endowed by philanthropists in the North — a man and a woman 
whose names are commemorated in the title of the hospital. The Freedmen's 
Bureau of Cincinnati owns the building and the equipment in which the enter- 
prise is housed. With this start in life, the private hospital for colored patients is 
going forward and making a success of its work. 

One of its most important objects is the training of nurses, and twenty-six girls 
are in training at this time. The fitness of colored women for nursing has been 
demonstrated through many long years in the South, even in the days when there 
was no training, and the only qualifications seemed to be limitless patience and 
cheerfulness; and now this hospital is adding to these the deftness that comes 
from knowledge. , , j i 

The rates at the hospital are low, and as a general thing all the wards and 
the private rooms are filled. 




The "Woman's Dispensary, in Annunciation street, near Felicity, is the out- 
come of a belief on the part "of several of the women physicians and many of 
the club women that a woman dreads the exposure and publicity of an ordinary 
hospital, and that she would prefer a hospital under the management of w^omen 
alone, and with none but women to be numbered among the patients. 

It would seem that the founders of this enterprise must have been correct in 
their judgment, for the women and children throng to the Free Clinic of the 
Dispensary, and whenever there is room in the hospital ward they are eager to 
be admitted rather than go to larger and better equipped hospitals. It seems a 
pity that such an institution as the Dispensary should have to be cramped for 
space, but even in spite of this disadvantage the Dispensary has done an immense 
and important worlt among the poor of that section. 


In a beautiful oak grove in Henry Clay avenue, not far from Magazine, the 
Home for Incurables was established some years ago, through the long and 
united efforts of men and women who felt that these pathetic individuals must be 
cared for. After several years, the lamented Miss Sophie Wright, with a faithful 
band of followers, began a campaign to raise funds for a Children's Annex to 
the Home, and was successful in establishing this most important addition to the 
Home. The place is managed by a board who devote a great deal of time and 
personal effort toward lightening the burdens of helplessness and poverty. 

Touro-Shakespeare Almshouse. 


Homes for old men and women are no less plentiful, throughout the length and 
breadth of the city. There is the Touro-Shakspeare Almshouse, a block from 
St. Charles at the end of Arabella street, where shelter is given to the aged poor 
who are helpless and unprotected in their old age. The Home of the Little 
Sisters of the Poor, in Prytania street, just above the Touro Infirmary, is a 
beautifully equipped building, and this is for men and women who are old and poor. 
The Julius Weiss Home for the Aged, in connection with Touro Infirmary, is 
a model institution of its kind, and here the old of the Jewish race are sheltered. 
The Fink Asylum, in Camp and Antonine, houses Protestant widows and orphans; 
as does St. Anna's Home, St. Mary and Prytania, a Protestant institution for 
the relief of impoverished gentlewomen, established in 1850 by Dr. W. N. Mercer 
in memory of his daughter. 


The city of New Orleans has a greater number of orphan asylums, perhaps, 
than almost any other city of its size in the United States. The New Orleans 
Female Orphan Asylum, on Clio, between Camp and Prytania, has grown to such 
an extent that it was found necessary, years ago, to inaugurate two separate 


branches — the Infants' Asylum in Magazine at the corner of Race, and St. Eliz- 
abeth's Asylum, in Napoleon avenue, which takes the girls from fourteen years of 
age up. The homes for the orphaned children of the Catholic Church are to be 
found from one end of the city to the other. 

Neither have the Protestants fared badly in this respect. In Jackson ave- 
nue is the Episcopal Orphans' Home; the Seventh Street Home is in Magazine 
street; the Poydras Orphan Asylum is in Magazine, at the corner of Peters avenue: 
and it is to be noted that in the beginning this asylum was opened in Poydras 
street, because there could be gardens and flowers around it there. This is now 
the center of the wholesale district of New Orleans. 

Another asylum is that for orphan boys, founded through the generosity of 
John JMcDonogh; standing for many years, in St. Charles avenue, two blocks below 
Peters avenue, but now to be moved to the country, where it will have more room 

One of the beautiful institutions, too, is the Jewish Orphans' Home, St. Charles 
and Peters avenues, where the children who have been orphaned are given what 
is really a home. 



In spite of the onrush of the "Movies," there are several of the old-time theaters, 
the "legitimate" playhouses, which remain to New Orleans, and which appeal to 
a large class of people. Chief among these is the Tulane Theater, near the corner 
of Baronne and Common. It is entered through a picturesque arc&de opening in 
both Baronne and Common streets, and is a beautiful playhouse, well arranged 
and comfortable, with a magnificent stage and splendid acoustic properties. Here 
the greatest men and women of the stage during the past decade or more have 
won the applause apd enthusiasm of New Orleans playgoers, who cherish the mem- 
ories of Maude Adams and David "Warfield and many others as something too fine 
to be lightly surrendered. 

Those interesting old buildings which once made up the Tulane Medical or 
what now bears the name of Tulane, were torn down to make room for two thea- 
ters, the Tulane and the Crescent, and there are elderly men all over the country 
who still love this spot because it was here that they learned the profession which 
they have held in honor all these years. 


Side by side w^ith the Tulane, next the corner of Common, entered through the 
same arcade, is the Crescent Theater. It is under the same management, and 
has always been a popular-priced house, bringing to the city minstrel shows and 
farces and the lighter type of plays which appeal immensely to a large number 
of people. 


Some years ago a theater was erected in Baronne street, near Lafayette street, 
by the Shubert interests, then in a financial struggle with the Klaw and Erlanger 
Syndicate. It was intended as a medium for legitimate drama; but the pressure 
was too strong, and it was never a paying venture. In the course of time its 
name w^as changed to "The Lafayette," and it became a moving picture place 
which won ^reat popularity before the many movie palaces in or near Canal street 
drew the movie crowds in that direction. Then the Lafayette turned to vaude- 
ville at popular prices. 


In St. Charles, between Poydras and Perdido (Commercial Alley) is the Or- 
pheum, the home of vaudeville. On the spot where it stands, James H. Caldwell, 
foremost citizen of old New Orleans, built the celebrated St. Charles Theater in 
1835. Never did a theater have a more interesting story through the years that 
led up to the destruction of the first building by fire in 1842. 

Another theater — the "Second St. Charles" — succeeded Caldwell's memorable 
structure, and attained even a greater celebrity; for it was during the regime of 
this structure that dramatic art was at its height, and the greatest acfors of the 
world appeared on the stage in the second theater bearing the name St. Charles. 

And then came another fire, in which the building was destroyed in 1899. 

The building that succeeded this is known as the Orpheum, and is leased to the 
regular Orpheum Cirfuit. which presents vaudeville in all the important cities of 
the United States. The Orpheum Company, however, has recently purchased a 
splendid site in University Place, opposite the Grunewald Hotel, and will erect a 
very handsome theater to be erected on the expiring of their present lease. 



Jefferson Davis Monument, 
Canal Street. 

Clay Monument, Lafayette 

Beauregrard Monument, City 

Ziee Monument, in Iiee Circle, 


WasMng'ton Artillery Monument in Metairie Cemetery. 

If New Orleans had been able to carry out her original plan, this city would 
have been sown thick with statues. However, one would have witnessed the mel- 
ancholy spectacle of long lines of dismantled statues being hauled down from 
their proud positions, "in the public eye," and tucked away in some park where 
they would be less dangerous to life and limb. 

The original plan was to place an imposing statue at the intersection of every 
important street with Canal street. The city began the work by placing a statue 
of Henry Clay, beloved friend and oft-time visitor, in the middle of Canal street, 
at the intersection of Royal. But that is as far as they ever went in statue rear- 
ing in Canal street. 

It was somewhat different then. A- flight of granite steps led up to it, as 
it used to dominate the busy street. Men and boys climbed up those steps and 
clung to the legs of the great Whig in their mad efforts for a point of vantage from 
which to see the Mardi Gras parades, or other interesting spectacle. In the mean- 
time, relentless progress was taking hold on the city. Street car lines began to 
crowd one another and the steps to the base were in the way. 

That was easily disposed of. They shaved them down, until the base was a 
polished shaft. 

The car lines became closer. People who insisted on putting their "heads, arms 
and bodies out of the windows while in motion," had them neatly taken off by that 
unyielding block of granite. There was no recourse — the statue must be moved. 
So it was taken down from its proud eminence and placed in the center of Lafay- 
ette Square. It had taken part in history making, that statue. Whenever there 
was "anything doing" in New Orleans, in the old days, the people always met at 
the Clay statue and had a little speech making to put them in the proper frame 
of mind; after which they departed on their errand and did it well. It was at the 
Clay statue they met when the battle of September 14? was brewing — and they fought 
gallantly. It was there that they met when the courts had been trifling with the 
Italian question; and the old Prison heard the rush of their feet soon after. 

The cornerstone of this monument was laid by the Clay Statue Association on 
April 12, 18B6. Joel T. Hart, of Kentucky, was the sculptor who designed the 


Clialmette Moniimeut. 

Marg°aret Monument, Margaret 

McSonog'Ii Montiment, 
Xiafayette Square. 

Audubon Statue, Audulbon 


BSoiiunient to the Confederate Dead in G-reenwood Cemetery. 


In the center of Jackson Square is an equestrian statue of General Andrew Jack- 
son, the hero of New Orleans. A society called the "Jackson Monument Society" 
raised a fund of $30,000 to erect this monument about the same time that Madame 
Pontalba had rescued the square from, its rundown condition and had it laid in 
formal beds and walks. Clark Mills was the sculptor who designed the statue, and 
the unveiling- took place in 1846. At the same time the ancient name of the square 
was changed from Place d'Armes to Jackson Square. It is to be noted that the 
inscription on the base of the monument was placed there by General Butler, dur- 
ing the Federal occupancy of the city. General Butler took liberties with several 
statues, and the slow-moving finger of time has not yet erased his inscription. 


Near the head of Canal street, where the cars make their turn, is a small grassy 
triangle of ground which is called "Liberty Place." In the center of it is an obe- 
lisk erected in 1891 in honor of the citizens killed in the battle of September 14, 1874. 
The battle was fought around and across this space and in the adjoining streets, 
and the contending forces were made up of the Metropolitan Police on one side and 
the White League of New Orleans on the other. It was a struggle for white su- 
premacy in Louisiana. When the battle was over the White League was trium- 
phant, with smaller loss than had befallen the other side. The names of those 
who fell in the battle are inscribed on the base of the shaft. 


Once upon a time the marble statue of Benjamin Franklin occupied the place 
in Lafayette Square whicji is filled by the Clay statue today. 

To mention the Franklin statue is to call up the image of the great American 
sculptor, Hiram Powers — he who immortalized himself in his famous "Greek Slave." 
There was a' time when the young sculptor was not so well known nor so success- 
ful as he became in later years. When he first started to Europe to study art a 


number of New Orleans people, influenced by Henry Kirke White, the poet, decided 
it would be a lovely thing to order from him, a statue — any statue — say a statue of 
Franklin, and to pay him $5000 down, "just to help him along," while the State )Df 
Louisiana gave him $15,000 for a statue of "Washington. This was in 1844. The 
sculptor did not complete the statue, the war came on — there were other things to 
think about, one may be sure. It was not till 1869 that the matter was brought 
up again. Powers agreed to complete the statue, which was done, and in 1871 it 
was given to the city on the condition that a granite base be provided for it. The 
statue arrived, but by some mistake it was advertised for sale. The granite for 
the base was shipped from Boston, but was lost at sea; a second base was never 
heard of, and it was not till 1873 that the statue was finally placed in Lafayette 

After some years it was discovered that weather was injuring the beautiful marble 
of the statue and it was moved to the New Orleans Public Library, where it is 
safe from further changes. 


The newest of the New Orleans monuments stands just outside of the City 
Park gate, which leads to the Delgado Museum — a bronze equestrian statue of 
General Beauregard, mounted on a granite base. This monument is the result of 
the long-continued work of the Beauregard Monument Association, which knew 
no such word as fail when once it had determined that a monument to Beauregard 
should be set in some prominent place in this city. General Beauregard was a New 
Orleans man, active and interested and filled with civic pride, long before ihe was a 
Confederate general, and it is both citizen and soldier who are commemorated in 
this handsome monument. 


The Jefferson Davis Monument Association, after a long struggle, at last suc- 
ceeded in commemorating the Confederate president with a statue in New Orleans, 
and two or three years ago the statue was unveiled with impressive ceremonies. It 
stands in Jefferson Davis Parkway, at the intersection of Canal, surrounded with 
a beautiful growth of palms and shrubs, and attracts a great deal of attention from 
the many thousands who pass along Canal street. It was eminently fitting that 
there should be a Davis statue in New Orleans, for the city is filled with men and 
women who were personal friends of the chief of a lost cause, and who loved him 
devotedly. It was in this city that Davis died, and here his body lay in state and 
here it was temporarily interred. 

Jefferson Davis Parkway, once with an open drain down the center, an eyesore 
and a menace to health, had already been filled and smoothed, under the old name 
of Hagan avenue. It is one of the broadest and most beautiful thoroughfares of 
the city, and the statue could not ihave been set in a more appropriate place. 


As the St. Charles and Tulane Belt cars and several of the cars of other lines 
turn the curve on Baronne street and Howard avenue they pass a grassy eminence, 
at the top of which is a lofty pedestal on which stands the statue of General Rob- 
ert E. Lee. 

The grassy eminence and the circle of walks and drives around it make up 
Lee Circle, a spot dear to the children, for it is down this grassy slope that they 
tumble hilariously in the late summer evenings, running back and tumbling down 
again over and over. During the day men sit on the benches under the shade of 
the encircling trees; but in the evenings the slope belongs to the children; and 
there is never a time from 4 o'clock to dark when the place is not echoing with 
childish voices. 

In the early days of the city this was Tivoli Circle, with an iron railing around 
it; but with the passing years the area of the circle waa a little circumscribed, to 
make room for the street car lines and the wide streets. The Lee Monument Asso- 
ciation erected the monument, beginning the work of raising funds in 1870, and 
realizing $40,000 for this purpose. The heroic statue of General Lee standing with 
folded arms looking out over the city, was the work of the sculptor Boyle. The 
shaft is more than one hundred feet high. Cypress piles driven deep into the earth 
form the foundation, while the shaft is of white marble blocks. Inside the column 
is a staircase, which terminates in a small room just beneath the statue, and from 
its slitted windows one may look out over the city. 

This statue was unveiled during the Carnival of 1883, in the presence of an 
immense multitude, and while a severe wind and rain storm was raging. This is 
one of the most conspicuous points of interest in the city. 


In Audubon Park, on the side next to the river, one comes upon one of the many 
surprises which ihaunt that beautiful park. In a little slope among the trees at the 
right of the main entrance stands the Audubon statue, erected to the memory of 
the great naturalist by the bird-lovers of this section. One of these bird-lovers, 
Mrs. Mary Suter Bradford, published a book and devoted the proceeds toward the 
statue; so that this one monument is unique in that it records the love of the 
people for the memory of the man who gave his life to his work and gave little 
thought to himself. 

It was eminently fitting that the statue of Audubon should adorn that park 
in New Orleans which has his name, for it was here that he spent much of :his 


time, and many of ihis finest specimens were secured while he wandered through 
Louisiana forests or tramped along the shores of Louisiana lakes and bayous. 


In Lafayette Square, just opposite City Hall, is a bust of an old man with an 
old-fashioned collar and tie, and with all the lines of his face turned down in sharp 
and gloomy curves. This is John McDonogh, who left half of his very large for- 
tune to found public schools in the city of New Orleans. 

McDonogh was born in 1779, in the city of Baltim.ore, of Scotch parentage, and 
while he was never a miser, as many called him during his life, he had the canny 
Scotch habit of thrift, and spent no money recklessly. There was a time during 
his young manhood when he was fond of society, when he lived in a beautifully 
furnished house at the northwest corner of Chartres and Toulouse and entertained 
there very lavishly. He had two unfortunate love affairs; first with Micaela, 
daughter of Don Almonaster y Roxas, and later with a Miss Johnson. It seemed 
the irony of fate that religious differences should have thwarted him on both occa- 
sions, for the two objects of his affections were Catholics, and as he would not be- 
come Catholic the relatives of the two young ladies interposed to prevent the 
marriage. The daughter of Almonaster married the Baron de Pontalba, whose re- 
ligious tendencies were all that could be desired; and yet the marriage was a most 
unhappy one, and ended in a separation. The other young lady chose to take 
the veil, since she could not marry the man she loved, and afterwards became the 
religious head of one of the local orders; after which time McDonogh visited her 
frequently to the day of his death. 

After this tragic ending of all his dreams, however, he lived in what was then 
called McDonoghville, now Gouldsboro, across the river. His business ventures 
were large, and he amassed a considerable fortune, which he left jointly, at his 
death in 1850, to the cities of New Orleans and Baltimore, for the building of public 
schools. The will was contested for a long time, but finally the cities were left 
Id use the funds he had provided for them, and all over the city one may find 
McDonogh schools, which commemorate this lonely man's generosity. His tomb 
still remains in the rear of his little village, long empty, for his body was finally 
moved to Baltimore. Every year, on McDonogh Day, the monument in Lafayette 
Square is decorated by the school children of New Orleans with banks and wreaths 
of flowers. 


At the junction of Prytania and Camp streets is a little triangle of ground, 
palm shaded; and there stands the statue of Margaret Haughery — plain of face 
and figure and garments, but considered almost the patron saint of orphans. 
Margaret Haughery came to this city with her husband and child about the middle 
of the last century. The death of husband and child left her alone, and she began 
her first work with and for orphans. In the course of time she acquired possession 
of a dairy, which prospered greatly; and then she added a bakery, and from which 
she realized a comfortable fortune. She had at one time had employment at the 
Poydras Asylum, conducted by the Sisters of Charity. Afterward the Sisters with- 
drew from the management of this asylum and started one of their own in a house 
on New Levee street. In 1840 it becanae evident that more room was needed; the 
grounds for an asylum and chapel were donated by Mme. Louise Fortier and her 
brother, Francis Saulet, on condition that both asylum and chapel were completed 
by 1850. It was then that Margaret came to the help of the asylum by raising 
the greater part of the funds needed, contributing very "largely herself. Both asy- 
lum and chapel were completed before the specified time. The New Orleans Fe- 
male Orphan Asylum, in the square back of the statue, is often called "The Margaret 
Home," in honor of this woman who gave not only what was hers, but herself 
as well, in loving service to others. 


Not far from the entrance of beautiful Greenwood Cemetery is one of the most 
iBtriking monuments of the city — the Confederate monument. This monument was 
erected in 1874 to the memory of the Confederate dead. The figure of a private 
soldier on picket duty surmounts it — one of the saddest and most pathetic and most 
heroic figures in the city. At the four corners of the shaft are busts of Lee, John- 
ston, Jackson and Polk. The bones of more than six hundred Confederate soldiers 
rest beneath the monument, gathered from, many a battlefield years after the war. 
This was the first monument ever erected to the memory of the Confederate dead. 
When it was unveiled. Father Ryan's poem. "The March of the Deathless Dead," 
was read amid fast-falling tears; for the war was only a little way in the back- 
ground then, and the hearts of the people were still sore. The Ladies' Confederate 
Memorial Association of Louisiana erected this monument and still has charge of it. 


Just within the gates of Metairie Cemetery is a monument tomb of the Army 
of Tennessee, surmounted by the splendid equestrian statue of Albert Sydney John- 
ston, executed by the sculptor, Doyle. This is one of the most interesting of all 
the statues of the city; and the tomb is no less interesting. A marble statue of 
an orderly calling the roll stands at the entrance. In the heart of the mound are 
the burial vaults, and on the tablet to the general whose statue is above is inscribed 
Dimitry's epitaph to General Johnston. General Beauregard is among the soldiers 
who sleep in this soldiers' tomb. 





Many years after the battle of New Orleans, during the decade that 
ended with 1840, the state of Louisiana undertook to mark the battlefield of Chal- 
mette with an appropriate monument, in honor of Jackson — to be called the Jacksoa 

Unfortunately, a description of this monument, written in 1884, says of it: "The 
monument is in a very delapidated and forlorn condition. The base is of brick, 
supporting a shaft of brick faced with marble. The steps within are of iron, but 
many of them are gone. The roof, of wood, is nearly fallen in, rain-stained and 
sun-scorched. Time, wind and rain have played havoc with it, and there is really 
very little roof left, and what there is is in a shaky condition and liable to be blown 
down in the first heavy storm. Over all the walls are scratched the names of ven- 
turous souls who hope to make their names immortal." 

The trouble was that the Legislature, after starting the monument, did not 
feel called upon to go on making appropriations which would have done m,ore than 
cover the initial expense; and the monument was left to fall into gradual decay. 

It stood, half finished and a reproach to the state, until a few years since, 
when the state of Louisiana offered it to the United States government, on condi- 
tion that the monument would be completed within five years. It was completed 
in less than the time specified, at a cost of $35,000; and the government made the 
Daughters of the Revolution and the Daughters of 1812 custodians. These two 
bodies of women are taking excellent care of the monument and grounds, so that 
it is a most attractive place. 


It -will be remembered that in laying out the upper city, the streets ran parallel 
with the river; but as the river made a far-reaching curve, the cross streets ran 
together before they ,had gone any great distance. Therefore it is that the city 
is spread out fan-wise, with the rim. of the fan following the river and the rivet 
where all the sticks come together out "back-o'-town," in a general way. 

These cross streets received many fanciful names in the course of the years, 
and of the irregular growth and laying out of the upper city; but every twelve 
or thirteen blocks one will find an avenue — wider, more dignified and picturesque 
The first of these avenues is Howard, in which Lee Circle is set; then follow Jack- 
son, Louisiana, Napoleon Avenue, Peters Avenue. Henry Clay and Palmer, Broad- 
way, Carrollton, Tulane. Similar avenues downtown are Esplanade, Elysian Fields, 
Jourdan, London, etc. These avenues are all wide and beautiful thoroughfares, 
some of which have been wonderfully beautified, while others are still to be dealt 
with by the city and the Parking Commission. 


In nothing has New Orleans improved during the past few years more than in 
the beauty and attractiveness of many of her streets. Twenty years ago, open 
and stagnant gutters along the sides of the streets offended the eyes and the sense 
of smell, and were a constant menace to health; and now they have departed for- 
ever — there are beautiful grass-covered sidewalk-strips next to the curb; trees shade 
the sidewalks, and in many cases other lines of trees or shrubs are stretched along 
the neutral ground on either side of the car tracks. Palms :have been used very 
largely in giving a tropic note to the city and the effect is most delightful and 
always arouses the enthusiasm of strangers, who cannot say enough about the 
beauty of the palm avenues. The bamboo and the common Louisiana cane have 
been planted along neutral grounds to a great extent and give a charming pic- 
turesqueness to the view along the streets. The camphor tree, one of the most 
beautiful ot our importations from China, is to be found all over the city and in 
increasing numbers. The beautiful pink crepe myrtle waves its long plumes in 
many a street, and the ligustrum is to be found everywhere. 

There are sections of the city where some lover of his kind did his tree-planting 
many years ago, and planted live oaks, so that we have splendid vistas where these 
magnificent trees stretch their branches over the street and make of it one long 
»i:reen tunnel. The finest specimens of these trees are to be found in upper St. 
£;harles avenue and in Audubon and City parks. 

Among the most "wonderful street-pictures are those provided in the residence 
parks. In such places, houses and grounds and central park are all in harmony, 
and the visitor will find them very beautiful indeed. 

The Parking Commission, established several years ago, has for three or four 
years been planting certain streets with certain trees, selected with a regard for 
place and for uniformity. The time is too short as yet for the city to appreciate 
the work that is being done by this fine commission; but in years to come this 
city will be enormously beautified by the tree planting that is going on today. 

New Orleans has learned something in regard to the real value of trees, and 
does not sacrifice trees to every whim as recklessly as it did at one time. Now, 
every effort is made to save a tree -when it is threatened with destruction, and tree 
surgery is carried forward in the parks and by many private citizens who will not 
willingly surrender the beautiful live oaks or elms that shade their homes. 


As the City Park is to the downtown section, so is Audubon Park to the dwellers 
above Canal street; and it may be said that, while convenience! of access to either 


Oak Trees in Audubon Park. 

counts for a great deal, it would be hard to tell which is dearer to any citizen, 
uptown or down. 

The river is kind to Audubon Park. It has been giving it territory during all 
these years, and the proud possessors of the park look smilingly forth on an ever- 
widening batture. All that comes will be gratefully received. 

This was once the plantation of the French hero, Masan, who suffered impris- 
onment in that gloomy prison, Morro Castle, because he resented the transfer of 
this, his country, to Spain. After some years the plantation passed into the hands 
of Pierre Foucher, son-in-law of Etienne de Bore, whose own plantation lay below 
the boundary of the park. It was here that de Bore succeeded in granulating 
sugar, and raised the first crop of that staple that was profitable from a commer- 
cial standpoint. 

Both plantations became the property of the Marquis de Circe Foucher, who 
sold them to the city for $180,000. 

Then the land lay dormant till the great Cotton Centennial Exposition, which 
did much for the beautifying of the park. Afterwards the place was given over 
to a commission, and it must be said that these gentlemen, laboring without reward, 
other than the satisfaction of their own civic pride, have made this one of the 
most beautiful spots to be found in any city. 

The St. Charles Belt cars pass beside the park, and here may be found the golf 
grounds, tennis courts and most beautiful drives. In this part of the park, too. 


the exquisite lake i designed by noted landscape gardeners throws an encircling 
arm around the lower side and end, with all the charm of lovely islands and wooded 

The Audubon Society has placed on one of the slopes of this park a bronze 
statue of Audubon. The great naturalist is represented as clad in hunting garb, 
and, with tablet and pencil in his hand, he is watching some bird in flight. It is 
eminently fitting that this statue should be placed in Audubon Park. 

Adjoining Audubon Park, on the upper side, is the Louisiana Sugar Experi- 
ment Station, which has done a wonderful work for the development of sugar cane 
culture in this state. 


■\^^here the Tulane Belt turns into Carrollton avenue near the canal is the base- 
ball park, dearly beloved by all the devotees of athletics in almost any form. This 
was once the Athletic City, beautifully laid out in walks and shrubbery and foun- 
tains, and with its summer theater and many other attractions; but it was not a 
financial success. In the course of tim.e the place was dismantled, and went to 
ruin for aw.bile; but at last it was turned into a baseball ground, with a fine grand- 
stand and a diamond. 

New Orleans has always been baseball mad, as witness the thousands who stand 
before The Times-Picayune office when the score of the championship contests is 
being announced, and the wild cheers of exultation when the favorite team is in 
the fore; and durii;g the baseball season this park is the center of attraction for 
the enthusiastic fans all over the city. 

In addition to the professional baseball, which wakes the wildest joy of the 
average citizen, and to which Heinemann Park is consecrated, it is here that the 
young giants of the universities fight out their football contests; and in many 
cases they have an entirely different clientele from that one which is absorbed in 
baseball. Se'wanee, L. S. U., Tulane, "Ole Miss" — to this haven they come, with 
their crowds of rooters and raise merry pandemonium, and the city is filled with 
college boys, and everybody likes to see them come. 


The Union Station, Howard avenue and Rampart street, is the most important 
of the city stations in view of the number of trains which go and come during every 
twenty-four hours. The Illinois Central, the Yazoo and Mississippi Valley and the 
Southern Pacific trains come in at this station; and there is never an hour when 
it is not a busy scene, with trains coming in and going out; with the crowds of 
autos and baggage vans and all the hurry of travel. The station is of red brick, 
with modern improvements and devices for handling and transmitting baggage. 

The Terminal Station, in Canal street, facing Elk Place, is one of the hand- 
some stations, beautifully planned and commodious. The Queen and Crescent and 
the New Orleans and Great Northern trains come to this station, which is one of 
the most conveniently arranged in the city. 

The Louisville and Nashville station, in Canal street, near the river, receives 
the Louisville and Nashville trains, and the Pontchartrain line also sends its trains 
here, instead of making the terminus in Elysian Fields street, as it did formerly. 

The newest and hanJsomest of the stations is that of the Texas and Pacific, in 
Annunciation street, at the corner of T.halia. This road has spent an enormous 
aro.ount of money in constructing a station that is the last word in stations, in 
beauty, permanence, convenience and in every other respect. 


That portion of New Orleans which lies on the west of the river, and which 
has gone by the name of Algiers for many long years, is one of the most progres- 
sive and up-to-date suburbs to be found in many a day's journey. It has grown 
to be a manufacturing center, as one manufacturing enterprise after another has 
sprung up along the banks of the river, and the hum of busy machinery is to be 
heard there in every direction and all day long. Some of the most important man- 
ufacturing enterprises of the Mississippi valley are located in Algiers. The dry 
dock and the naval station are on the Algiers side of the Mississippi; and there 
is a probability that other government institutions will be located in this thriving 
portion of the city. Algiers is reached by ferry from half a dozen points on the 
eastern side of the river. Schools are abundant, and several of the most beautiful 
churches of New Orleans are located on the Algiers side; notably the Catholic 
Church, which is famed for the beauty of its gardens. 

When La Nouvelle Orleans was a tiny village, Bienville called the broad 
stretches of country over the river "the plantations of the king." All kinds of ro- 
mantic stories have been told as to the origin of the name, "Algiers," which was 
given it at an early date. One of the stories was that Lafitte and his followers 
made that shore of the river an occasional rendezvous, and so it was likened to the 
resorts of pirates and corsairs on the African coast of the Mediterranean. Another 
is to the effect that a certain Captain Peter March, who had much to do with docks 
and shipyards, was on a particularly emphatic "jag" one night, and in that mood 
he abused the village which had arisen on the other side of the river without stint, 
and ended by calling it "Algiers" and its people Algerines, intimating that they 
w^ere no better than the pirates of the African coast. 

This is the story that seems to have obtained the most credence. However the 
name was obtained, the little city has struggled along under the handicap without 



Dry Sock, United States Naval Station, 

even knowing that the name mattered in the least, and has prospered mightily, 
especially during* the past few years. 

The site of Algiers was originally the property of one Louis Borepo, who held 
it by a grant from the Spanish Governor O'Reilly. Borepo sold it to Jacques Rix- 
ner, who sold it in turn to P. Burgaud, and he left it by will to Martial Lebeuf, 
who sold it to Barthelemi Duverje, grandfather of the Oliver family. 

Heirs and purchasers have come and gone; business enterprises have sprung 
up and streets have been laid out over old sugar plantations. Shipyards and dry 
docks began to figure among its industries. One of the interesting stories in con- 
nection with the drydocks on the Algiers shore has to do with the Civil War and 
the news that the Federal fleet was coming up the river. The owner of the docks 
suggested that the drydocks should go to the bottom of the river rather than have 
them fall into the hands of the enemy; and a committee of citizens, acting under 
orders of General Lovell, commander of the department, notified the managers of 
the docks that they had been ordered to sink them. Beginning with the one 
farthest down the river, they sank them all in succession as they moved up the 
stream. Attempts were made to raise them, after the war was over, but they were 
not successful. They lie at the bottom of the river, down the shore of Algiers, and 
it is safe to say that they will never be resurrected. 

The great drydock of the United States Naval Station is the second largest 
dock of its kind in the world, capable of raising a vessel of 18,000 tons. 


In Algiers, just below the naval station, is one of the important points of 
the city^the immigrant station. It is here that all immigrants are met and ex- 
amined, so that unknown and unguessed diseases may not be brought into the 
city, and that New Orleans may be protected in many ways. A great change has 
been effected by the inauguration of such outposts as this in the ports of the world; 
and the immigration station must be held in high esteem. 

Across the river, by way of the Jackson Avenue Ferry, lies the thriving town 
of Gretna, narish seat of Jefferson parish. This town, so long a mere village, has 
been brought into erreat orominence through the manufacturing enterprises which 
have begun to line themselves un along the river banks — enternrises which turn loose 
many thousands of dollars in that town in the weekly payroll, which employ thou- 
sands of men and women and which are of the greatest importance in the develop- 
ment of the town. The growth of these enterprises has been so rapid of late years 
that there has hardly been time for Gretna to take stock of her opoortunities— but 
there is no doubt that a prosperous future is ahead of the capital of Jefferson 


Many years ago Carrollton was a village separated from New Orleans by miles 
of forest and swamp. The village was made up in large part of people whose little 




homes were surrounded by truck gardens, and who made their journeys to the city 
over atrocious roads, bringing their wagonloads of truclt. In those days Carroll- 
ton was the county site of Jefferson parish; and the big building at the corner 
of Carrollton avenue and Hampson, now McDonogh School No. 23, was once the 
courthouse, while behind the school building is a thick-walled and narrow-windowed 
building, then the jail of that parish, and still used as a prison for the upper reaches 
of the city. This is perhaps the most massively-built prison in the city. At the 
corner where the St. Charles Belt line turns, the Carrollton Levee is uplifted — quite 
the highest point in the city. Outside of that levee is the site of the old-time Car- 
rollton Gardens, which the people of an older generation found a charming resort 
in the summer evenings. The river made such inroads that the levee had to be 
drawn in some years ago, and the site of the old gardens was left outside. Later 
a railroad line, the third steam railroad line in the United States, ran from the 
proximity of the Lee Monument to this point, as early as 1839; and the railroad 
erected a picturesque terminal at the head of St. Charles avenue; but in 1896 it had 
to be torn down to make way for the new levee. There was also a hotel once — 
and this is one of the many places where Thackeray was banqueted on his visit 
to New Orleans. 


In a city like New Orleans it goes without saying that there would be a olace 
to play; for while the people of today are not idlers, when they have a little leisure 
they know how to spend it in the most effective way. Perhaps this accounts for 
the large amount they are accomplishing these days; they know how to relax, and 
they have the places for the most delightful relaxation. 

If they are chained to the city and can take no more than a day off, why they 
go to the City Park or Audubon Park, take the children along, with a generous 
basket of lunch, stretch themselves at their ease on the velvety grass, under, the 
shade of moss-draped oaks, and forget that they have t'^ be at work in time on 
the morrow. Or they take a little run out to West End, or Spanish Fort, or 

Milneburg, and fish for crabs and shrimp, and lounge and rest, the whole day long. 

Or they take the excursion trains to "Waveland, or Bay St. Louis, or Pass 
Christian, or Gulfport, or Mississippi City, or Biloxi, or Long Beach, or Ocean 
Springs; or they take the excursion boat across the lake for the balmy pine woods 
of St. Tammany — or they go to Hammond. The day is all that a day could be, 
and they come home in the evening tired, but yet rested, which is one of the ex- 
cursion paradoxes. 

But if they can spend a longer time; if they have a week, say — then what joy 
awaits them! 

General View of West End. 


One of the city's most delightful breathing places is at West End, on the shores 
of Lake Pontchartrain, reached by the West End and Spanish Fort cars, or, still 
better, by auto along the beautiful shell road. 

West End has had varying fortunes for some years; sometimes the favorite 
resort of the citizens in the summer evenings, and sometimes in a condition of utter 
disrepair from storms. When the former state prevailed the citizens were fanned 
by the lake breezes as they listened to vaudeville on the great platform, built out 




«n piles over the water, or ate delicious seafoods in restaurants similarly placed, 
or took long and peaceful walks through the groves down the lake front. When 
the latter thing had happened, the lake arose and tore down the platforms and upset 
the restaurants and overturned the pretty groves. 

At last, however, the city has taken this favorite old resort in hand, and has 
made of the former West End a new and glorified spot, which will in a few years 
be one of the most beautiful coast resorts in the South. By legislative enactment 
the city was able to secure $175,000 from the street car company; and thus equipped, 
has constructed a substantial seawall along the entire front, as a beginninng of de- 
velopment. Sand pumped in from the lake bottom has been used to build up a 
wide area back of the seawall, almost on the level with the top of the wall; and 
on this area beautiful driveways have been constructed and paved, hundreds of trees 
have been planted and lawns laid out and sodded; while concrete seats are scattered 
along the borders from end to end of the lake front and throughout the grounds. 

As a final touch, the one thing needed to make the place perfect, there is the 
Prismatic Fountain. 

In the first place, few things in the way of decorations for gardens and parks 
can compare with a fountain, even when it is just an ordinary, everyday fountain, 
and this is not of that kind. All that modern science and invention could do in 
the building of illuminated fountains has been done at West End. From, an "under- 
sea" grotto beneath the fountain — you may catch a glimpse of it through the fall- 
ing water, or may even be permitted to cross the bridges and enter — an electrical 
expert w^orks a thousand levers and buttons, and makes a thousand combinations 
of shape and color in the glittering mass of water above him. So wonderful are 
all the changes that every one of them seem.s more beautiful than the last. This 
stands alone among all the fountains ever owned and enjoyed by the people of New 
Orleans, for in one evening it takes on all the forms and is wove through with all 
the colors ever imagined by a dreamer of fountains. 

New Orleans possesses a treasure of rare value in the new West End and the 
new fountain. 

At Old Spanish Fort. 


Many years ago, when the Spaniards had possession of Louisiana, they guarded 
their little city from an attack by way of the lake, erecting a fort at the m.outh 
of Bayou St. John. This is the Spanish Fort of today, or this gives the amuse- 
ment park surrounding it a local habitation and a name. It was there that Gen- 
eral Jackson landed when he came to New Orleans to take command of the Ameri- 
can forces. The fort was again brought into active use during the Civil War, 
when it was garrisoned and guns were mounted and used in repelling the Federals. 
The ruins of the old fort are still there, not utterly demolished in spite of the years. 


In the course of time a little village grew up around the ruined fort; but 
gradually it grew into a lakeside resort for the people of New Orleans. This 
place, like "West End, has had its reverses, but for several years now it has 
been one of the favorite lake resorts of the city. All kinds of amusements are 
forthcoming, and the visitor who wishes to while away a sultry evening during 
the summer hastens to Spanish Fort, where he may enjoy the lake breezes and 
at the same time indulge in refreshments, or climb to giddy heights on the Ferris 
wheel, or dance to his heart's content. 

Spanish Fort is reached by the Spanish Fort and West End trains, from Canal 
street. The fare, which used to be fifteen cents for the round trip, is now five 
cents either way; but the street car company does not give transfers from any 
other line to these trains. 


Many years ago one Alexander Milne, a wealthy Scotchman, endeared him- 
self to the citizens of New Orleans for the charities which he projected for this 
city. It chanced that he owned a large body of what was then swamp land along 
Lake Pontchartrain, including a section which was cnosen as the lake end of the 
old Pontchartrain railroad — a short line, but an immensely important one, as it 
was the second railroad built in the United States. 

The little village which quickly grew up around the lake end of the road 
was called Milneburg. 

There were many years when Milneburg had a reputation for fine restau- 
rants and excellent cooking which extended all over the United States and into 
Europe. One of the chief of these was Boudroux, the chef with the magic touch. 
It was at his restaurant that Thackeray ■vyas entertained at a celebrated banquei 
during his visit to New^ Orleans; and the great novelist afterward paid tribute to 
that banquet in moving terms. When Jenny Lind was to be entertained by the 
Baroness Pontalba, during her brief stay in this city, Boudroux was engaged 
to act as caterer for the queen of song. There are many stories connected with 
this old caterer, and others, almost as well known in the old days. 

At Milneburg, today, one finds hundreds of fishing camps, whose owners are 
in the habit of running over for a day or two, or a week or two, whenever occa- 
sion serves, to indulge in fishing; and these camps are always kept furnished, 
so that the owners may take possession at a moment's notice. There are also 
many permanent residents, and among these are multitudes of fishermen, who 
spend their days "crabbing" or "shrimping" or "soft shelling" in season, and in 
many ways make the lake help to keep the pot boiling. 

The Pontchartrain railroad trains still run to Milneburg, and here it is one 
takes the boat for "Across-the-Lake." 


If you go out to Milneburg, riding on the second oldest railroad in the United 
States, and take the big lake steamer that is tied up to the pier, you will reach 
that magic country known lovingly by New Orleans as "Across-the-Lake." It is 
a designation that takes in a large extent of territory, including wonderful St.. 
'Tammany parish, with its pine forests, health-giving and murmurous; the pla^e 
where invalids go to breathe in the balmy fragrance of the pines, and grow strong 
and well thereby; where well people go to gain such rest as they can never enjoy 
elsewhere; and where the children go to have the best time children ever had 
since the world began. You may stop at Mandeville, the birthplace of Audubon, the 
home of giant oaks and pecans; the town where you can have bathing and fishing 
to your heart's content, and where summer is one long period of simple country 
and waterside joy. 

Or, you can go on a few miles further — by rail or by motor car, or auto, over 
beautiful roads — to Abita Springs, still among the pines and with wonderful water 
pouring from the earth in beautiful streams. 

Or, you can go on to Covington, one of the most interesting old towns of 
Southern Louisiana; Covington, with its three romantic rivers, the Bogue Falaya, 
the Abita and the Tchefuncta, overhung by mossy oaks and reflecting every still 
leaf in their crystal depths. 

That is what they mean when they tell you that they spend the summer 
"Across-the-Lake;" some of them in rented cottages, some in magnificent homes 
fitted with all kinds of luxuries. 

The country is filled with the playgrounds of New Orleans. 


You take the Louisville and Nashville to go to AVaveland. It leaves you at a 
delightful little station, seemingly dropped down quite by accident by the side of 
the road; and you will find autos and carriages there — or if you like it better, 
you can walk down to that stretch of glittering water woven thick with sunshine, 
which you see among the trees. And there at Waveland, rest and fun and delight- 
ful ease await you. You can fish, if it strikes you that way; or you can bathe, 
or you can go sailing; or you can drive — or you can just simply lie out in a 
hammock, shaded by' big trees and swept by salt breezes, and get all the weariness 
of all the months rested out of your system. 


Five miles further on you will find Bay St. Louis, perched on pretty elevations 
above the beach, bowered in trees, with white rows of glistening streets, with 


schools and colleges and churches; and with scores of summer visitors who have 
been coming here so many years that they would not feel themselves at home 
in any other place, in summer. Many of them own their cottages on the front, 
and keep them always ready; and when the city begins to pall upon them too 
much, they pack their wearing apparel, and come over, ready to begin house- 
keeping as soon as they can have a talk with the grocer and get the automobile 


Further down the road, over the long bridge and across the woods, and there 
is what is familiarly called "The Pass." No more beautiful water front is to be 
found in the South; and there are no more beautiful homes anywhere than those 
that are strung along the beach for several miles. Such lovely old homes, with 
old-fashioned wide galleries and splendid halls, through which all the winds 
that blow go careering; such big windows, with muslin curtains aflutter; such 
beautiful trees, that stretch their long branches as though they wanted to take 
in the whole world — it is like a dream of summer idleness and restfulness, the 
mere vision of Pass Christian. No wonder it has become the favorite haunt oi 
presidents and novelists. 

Who wouldn't like to be there? 


There are many citizens of New Orleans, who, whenever they are loosed for 
a day or two from the ever-turning wheel, will immediately announce: "I am 
going down to Gulfport." Such hotels — such homes — such everything as one 
finds in that magic city which has made record time in developing rrom the day 
it was started! There, too, New Orleans may sit in the shade and watch the city 
grow; or it may disport itself in the hammock under the oak trees and rest from 
its labors. 


Mississippi City is another of the places fronting the gulf and offering to the 
city dweller all that beautiful beach and long stretches of sea can offer. Many 
are the citizens of New Orleans who cast their vacation days in such pleasant 
places as this, and come home like giants refreshed when vacation days are over. 


Two miles out from Biloxi, facing the beach, one finds the beautiful groves 
of the Seashore Camp Grounds, with the cottage roofs peering through them. 
This has been the gathering place of the Methodists of three states, Louisiana, 
Mississippi and Alabama, for many years. Here the annual camp meeting is held; 
here the Summer Divinity School draws its crowd of lecturers and of young 
ministers; here the great Sunday school conventions are held, and here the Ep- 
worth League, made up of the young people of the Methodist Church, gathers its 
throng of delegates. Many who are not connected with the Methodist Church 
have learned to love this place and the people who assemble there, and they may 
be found among the cottagers summer after summer. It may be said that the 
Seashore Camp Grounds is the headquarters of Methodism, and that it is also 
one of the finest vacation fields within all the range of the New Orleans play- 


One of the most beautiful and the most interesting towns on the gulf coast, 
within the reach of New Orleans vacationists is Biloxi. Its history dates back for 
more than two hundred years, and in its delightful mixture of the old and the 
new, it offers many attractions. 

This old town has won the affections of many New Orleans citizens, as welT 
as of pleasure seekers from all over the North and West. If you visit one of 
the hotels or the boarding houses or the homes that are opened to invited guests, 
you will find little circles of friends from half a dozen different states; friends 
who met there by accident years ago, perhaps, and have been coming back year 
after year, like homing pigeons, to go on the same old sailing parties; to sit in 
awnifig-shaded porches and go on with the same old fancy work; to take a new 
lease on life in many different ways. It is not to be wondered at that New 
Orleans loves Biloxi. 


At one time, a few years ago, Grand Isle was one of the most delightful 
resorts on the gulf coast. The happy voyager, intent on a holiday, used to go 
across the river and take boat down the canal and the Bayou Barataria— beloved 
haunt of two old-time gentlemen known as the Lafitte brothers — and so across 
Barataria bay and to that romantic land known as Grand Isle. Hotels were there, 
then and homes of summer dwellers in Arcadia. But the place is exposed to the 
wrath of hurricanes and the more audacious summer resorts were wrecked. Today 
a few modest boarding places are found well back in the protection of the grove 
or "cheniere" of live oaks that covers the middle island. 

The New Orleans and Southern railroad, however, is preparing to rescue Grand 
Isle from its obscurity. Somewhere down the line it will put on a fast motorboat 
service connecting with the island; thereby shortening the distance from the city 


very materially. Then, no doubt, the old friends of the island, those who have 
many happy memories connected with it, together with many new friends, will 
begin to establish themselves there and to seek restfulness in that enchanted land, 
where the finest surf bathing beach of the entire South is to be found. 


To the devotees of the gun, the rod and the reel. New Orleans furnishes the 
rarest sport to be found in any one place, the country over. If the hunter takes 
almost any train out of the city and rides for two or four hours or half a dozen 
hours, with his dogs in the baggage car ahead, he may come on portions of the 
country where coveys of quail start up all along the line of march; or where he 
may have a fine shot at a deer without any trouble at all. Out of town on the 
early morning train and back again in the evening with his game bagged — wha 
could be finer than that? The season for deer lasts four months, and one mus: 
be careful not to hurry it along too much, or overstep the bounds at the last of 
it, for the Game Commission of Louisiana is strict in its interpretation of the 

All along the shores of the lake is a wide stretch of marsh or "trembling 
prairie," and all through this space the wild ducks and geese find their feeding 
grounds. With the first cold in October one may hear their cry, as they pursue 
their way across the trackless void; and here many of them remain until it is 
time for them to take up their wedge-shaped flight northward wheji the winter 
is over. They afford rare sport to the huntsman, who braves the marshes and 
threads the marsh bayous in search of them. Teal and wood ducks join them 
later; and, indeed, many of the latter winter in this state. 

If the hunter can cross the lake, he will find in the high lands on the other 
side not only quail but an occasional wild turkey, and squirrels may be added 
to the bag before the end of the day's shooting. 

As for fishing — the lake shores, the Rigolets, Chef Menteur, Lake Catherine 
— there are dozens of fishing places, which are a delight to the sportsman. Some 
of them are guarded by private clubs, but there are others where a man may get 
boat and a guide and tackle and bait, and go forth thoroughly equipped, and 
return to an excellent dinner. As for the fish — there they are — red snapper, and 
sheepshead and Spanish mackerel, and green trout, and black bass, and pompano, 
and croakers — a world of varieties, ready to his hand. 

At Dunbar, one may go up Pearl river, and there, during the summer, a 
variety of fish awaits the. fisherman — among these, the jackfish. It is said that 
the jackfish rarely exceeds forty pounds in weight, but the angler will have some 
hours of hard work getting that forty pounds ashore. In all the rivers, up a 
little way, trout and 'goggle-eyed" perch abound, and furnish excellent sport, as 
well as manjf a delightful meal; and the fresh water cat, even, is abundant, and 
is not despised by the connoisseur when it is properly cooked, as only those 
to the manner born know how to cook fish. 

At the Rigolets, the narrow neck of water which connects Lake Pontchartrain 
and Lake Borgne, both hunting and fishing are at their best; but the best hunting 
area is a private preserve and is properly posted. 

Three miles from the Rigolets is Lake Catherine, famous for its duck hunt- 
ing grounds, as well as for the excellent fishing. Many of the best fishermen 
of the city go to this resort on every possible holiday, during the season, and bring 
home game and fish enough to divide with their friends and for their own tables 
as well. 

It is in St. Tammany parish, however, that one finds the sportsmen's paradise. 
All through the river bottoms, along the Bogue Falaya, the Abita, the Tchefuncta 
and the Bogue Chitto and Pearl rivers there is game for the sportsman; and 
on Honey island, once the abode of the robber and the home of old-time romance, 
the hunter may get a shot not only at deer, but even, on occasion, ai oears. Not 
only that, but fox hunting is not unknown in this St. Tammany country — only 
two or three hours out from New Orleans. 

Tangipahoa, also, is not without its attractions to the hunter. At Pass Man- 
chac. La Branche, and on up to the Mississippi line, there have always been quail — 
not so many now as formerly, for the hunting has been too enthusiastic. Nor do 
the New Orleans hunters stop there. At Chatawa, the beautiful hill country 
just beyond the Mississippi line, there is excellent hunting; and certain of the 
old inhabitants of that little summer resort of the lovely old times, go back on 
pilgrimages when the hunting season opens every fall, and are out in the frosty 
morning with dog and gun, hunting over the old hills they learned to love when 
they were barefoot boys. 

In short — there ^is such hunting, there is such fishing around New Orleans a.-^ 
will arouse the keenest interest of the sportsman from whatever clime he may 
hail. Another fishing wonderland is found in the network of bays and bayous 
known as the Barataria region, lying south of New Orleans, and between the city 
and the Gulf of Mexico. The region is reached by powerboats and by the New 
Orleans and Southern railway. Several important fishing and hunting clubs have 
been established in that broad area. 


Steanitooat Iiandiug". 



One of the most disagreeable features of the city in those early days was the 
condition of the streets, in which not a stone had been laid. A wooden drain 
served for a gutter, the banquette was also of wood, and the street between the 
sidewalks was alternately a swamp and a mass of stifling dust. Wagons draggea 
along, with the wheels sunk to the hubs in mud. It was not till 1821 that any 
F.ystematic attempt was made to pave the streets. The city in that year offered 
?250 per ton for rock ballast as inducement to the ship captains to ballast with 
rocks instead of sand, and this plan was quite effectual. In 1822 St. Charles 
street was paved for several blocks, and patches of pavement were made oi. 
other streets. 

Prior to 1815, and indeed, for some years afterward, the city was lighted by 
means of oil lamps suspended from wooden posts, from which an arm projected. 
The light only penetrated a very short distance, and it was the custom always 
to use lanterns on the streets. The order of march when a family went out in the 
evening was: First, a slave bearing a lantern; then another slave bearing the 
shoes which w^ere to be worn in the ballroom or theater, and other articles of 
full dress that were donned only after the destination was reached; and last, 
the family. 

There were no cisterns in those days. The water of the Mississippi, filtrated, 
served as drinking water, while water for common household needs was obtained 
from wells dug on the premises. 

New Orleans in the beginning of the nineteenth century was woefully deficient 
in promenades, drives and places of public amusement. The favorite promenade 
was the Levee, with its king's road, or Chemin des Tchoupitoulas, where twelve 
or fifteen Louisiana willow trees were planted facing the street corners, in ^vhose 
shade were wooden benches ■without backs, upon which people sat in the after- 
noon, sheltered from the sun. These trees, which grow rapidly, extended from 
above St. Louis street to St. Philip. Outside the city limits was the Bayou road, 
with all its inconveniences of mud and dust, leading to the small plantations or 
truck farms forming the Gentilly district, and to those of Metairie Ridge. It was 
the fashion to spend an hour or two in the evening on this road, riding on horse- 
back or in carriages of more or less elegance. 

Almost up to the year 1800, the women of the city dressed with extreme sim- 
plicity. But little taste was displayed, either in the cut of their garments or in 
their ornaments. Headgear was almost unknown. If a lady went out in summer, 
she was bareheaded; if in winter, she usually wore a handkerchief or some other 
such trifle as the Spanish women delight in. And at home — so, at least, said 
those who had penetrated there — she even went about barefooted, shoes being 
expensive luxuries. 

A short, round skirt, a long, basque-like over-garment; the upper part of their 
attire of one color, the lower of another, with a profuse display of ribbons ana 
little jewelry — thus dressed, the mass of the female population of good condition 
-went about visiting or attended the ball or theater. 



But by 1802 the ladies of the city appeared in attire as different from that of 
Jt799 as could well be imagined. A surprising richness and elegance of apparel had 
taken the place of the tasteless and primitive garb of the few preceding years' 
At thai period, the natural charms of the ladies were heightened by a toilette of 
most captivating details. Their dresses were of the richest embroidered muslins, 
cut in the latest fashions, relieved by soft and brilliant transparent taffetas, by 
superb laces, and embroidered with gold. To this must be added rich earrings, 
collars, bracelets, rings and other adornments. 


"When Governor Claiborne came down to inspect New Orleans and take posses- 
sion of Louisiana, he noticed "a sawmill with two saws, turned by horses; a 
wooden-horse riding circus for children, a French theater, two banks, a custom- 
house, navy yard, a barracks, a fort, public warehouses, government house, a 
Catholic Church of the first order in size and elegance, and the capitol, a superb 
building adjoining the church, both built bv a Spaniard at an expense of half a 
million dollars, and presented by him to the Spanish government at New Orleans. 
The cotton presses of the city give much labor, and the 'pressing song' of the 
men is interesting. It is similar to the 'heave ho' of the sailor, with this difference, 
that several are engaged in singing and each has his part, consisting of two or 
three appropriate words, tuned to his own fancy so as to make harmony with 
the other. Other presses go by horse or steam power, where the men have no 
other labor than rolling the bales, untying, retying, etc. They repress a bale in 
seven or ten minutes." 

The Perry I^anding' at Canal Street. 


An old directory published in 1822 gives the following description of the New 
Orleans of that day: 

"The city is regularly laid out; the streets are generally thirty-eight feet wide; 
but Orleans street is forty-five feet, Esplanade and Rampart each 108 feet; Canal 
street, 171, and Champs Elysees, 160 feet. 

"The spacious streets which bound the city. Canal, Rampart, Esplanade ana 
the Levee, have lately been planted with four rows of the sycamore or butterwood 
trees, which in the course of a few years will afford a fine shade, contribute to the 
health of the city and present one of the most elegant promenades in the United 
States. There are several large public squares, one of which, the Place of Arms, 
350 feet on the levee by 330 feet in depth to Chartres street, is very handsome, 
being planted with trees and enclosed with an iron palisade, having beautifully 
ornamental gateways of the same metal. The Circus public square is plantea 
with trees and enclosed, and is very noted on account of its being the place 
where the Congo and other negroes dance, carouse and debauch on the Sabbath, 
to the great injury of the morals of the rising generation. It is a foolish custom 
which elicits the ridicule of the most respectable persons who visit the city. 

"Those streets that are not paved in the middle have brick sidewalks and 
gutters formed of wood, which are kept clean by the black prisoners of the city, 
who are generally runaways, carrying heavy chains to prevent them making their 

"The wells are generally from five to fifteen feet in depth. Drinking water and 
that used for cooking and washing is taken from the river, carried through the 
city for sale, in hogsheads or carts, and sold at the rate of four buckets for six- 
and-a-quarter cents, or fifty cents per hogshead. The water is either filtered 


through a porous stone or is placed in a large jar and cleared by alum, etc. The 
water is considered wholesome. 

''The buildings were formerly almost entirely of wood, but those recently 
erected are for the most part of brick. The houses are built without cellars, in 
consequence of the dampness of the earth, but an experiment has lately been 
made in the new stores, New Levee, above Gravier street, which promises to be 
highly useful. The cellars are lined with strong plank, the joints of which are 
caulked and pitched to keep out the water, and which is found to answer, not- 
withstanding the surface of the water in the river is at this time higher than 
the bottom of the cellars. 

"The city is guarded at night by about fifty armed men, who, during the day, 
are generally private citizens. They patrol the streets in small squads, w^hich 
are generally — and should always be — composed of persops capable of speaking 
both French and English. 

"A cannon is fired at 8 o'clock in the winter and 9 in the summer as a signal 
for all sailors, soldiers and blacks to go to their respective homes, and all such 
persons found in the streets afterward without a pass from their employers or 
masters are taken to the calaboose or city prison. It is also a notice for gro- 
ceries and taverns, with the exception of a few reputable hotels and coffee houses, 
to be closed. 

"The present population of the city and suburbs of the city is about 40,000. 
The population is much mixed, consisting of foreign and native French, Americans 
born in the state and from every state in the Union, a few Spaniards and foreign- 
ers from almost every nation. 

"The State Prison, in 1821, contained 226 debtors and criminals. The debtor 
is confined in the same prison with the criminals. 

"The Charity Hospital is in Canal, between Basin and St. Philip streets, and 
the average number of the patients is 130. There were also the Masonic and 
Naval hospitals and a private hospital. 

"The Poydras Female Orphan Asylum, situated at 153 Poydras street, is a neat, 
new frame building with a large garden. Any female child in want may be ad- 
mitted by consent of the board, though not an orphan. This excellent charitable 
institution owed its existence primarily to the liberality of Julien Poydras, who 
contributed a house and the large lot on which the house now stands. The State 
Legislature voted $4000. 

"Among the public buildings is Market House, a neat building about 300 feet 
long, situated on the levee, near the Place of Arms, containing more than 100 
stalls, erected in 1813. 

"There are no less than nineteen lodges of the various orders of Free Masons 
in New Orleans, and the Grand Lodge of Louisiana was formed and constituted on 
the twentieth day of June, 1820. 

"The means of extinguishing fires are twelve fire engines and ladders, hooks, 
and a great number of leather fire buckets. The citizens during a fire are generally 
active, and are set a worthy example by the indefatigable mayor and fire war- 
dens, who, on an alarm, are the first to repair to the spot. 

"Perhaps no city in the United States can boast of being better lighted than 
New Orleans. There are 250 of the most complete and brilliant reflecting lamps, 
suspended to iron chains, which are stretched from the corners of houses or hlgu 
posts, diagonally across the junctions of the various streets, in such a manner 
as to be seen in a range from the middle of any street, the cost of which is about 
$45 each." 


In 1802 New Orleans possessed a theater — such as it was — situated in St. Peter 
street in the middle of the block between Royal and Bourbon, on the left-hand 
side going toward the swamp. It was a long, low, wooden structure, built oi 
cypress and alarmingly exposed to the dangers of fire. Here, in 1799, half a dozen 
actors and actresses, refugees from the insurrection in San Domingo, gave accept- 
able performances, rendering comedy, drama, vaudeville and comic operas. But, 
owing to various causes, the drama at this place of amusement fell into decline; 
the theater was closed after two years, and the majority of the actors and 
actresses were scattered. Some, however, remained, and these, witn a few ama- 
teurs, formed another company in 1802. Several pieces were presented; among 
others, by the amateurs, "The Death of Caesar" — the character of the illustrious 
Roman being taken by an old citizen who had lived in the colony for forty years. 


The devotees of the dance in those primitive days were compelled by circum- 
stances to satisfy themselves with accommodations of the plainest description in 
the exercise of this amusement in public. In a plain, ill-conditioned, ill-lighted 
room in a wooden building situated on Conde street, between St. Ann ana 
Dumaine, a hall perhaps eighty feet long and thirty feet wide, the adepts of 
Terpsichore met, unmasked, during the months of January and February, in what 
was called the Carnival Season, to indulge at the cost of fifty cents per head 
for entrance fee in the fatiguing pleasures of the contre-danses of that day. 
Along the sides of the hall were ranged boxes, ascending gradually, in which 
usually sat the non-dancing mammas and the wall-flowers of more tender years. 
The musicians were composed, usually, of five or six gypsies, and to the note 
of their violins the dancing went on gaily. 


Carondelet and Canal Streets. 


Bernard Marigny, of the most illustrious family in Louisiana, was a great 
wag. Among his friends was a Monsieur Tissier, afterward a prominent judge, 
who was a confirmed "beau." Marigny delighted in nothing more than to quiz 
his friend, and did so upon every occasion. Meeting him in the street or in the 
ballroom, Marigny would throw up his hands, assume an attitude and expression 
of the most intense admiration, and exclaim: "What a beau you are! How I 
do admire you!" Monsieur Tissier bore it for a long time without remonstrance, 
but forbearance at last ceased to be a virtue, and he insisted that Monsieur 
Marigny should be more considerate of his feelings. Monsieur Marigny waited 
until he met his friend in the ballroom among the ladies, and repeated the 
offensive exclamation, whereupon Monsieur Tissier challenged him. The challenge 
was accepted, pistols were chosen, and the whilom friends repaired to the Oaks! 
They were placed in position, the word was about to be given, when Monsieur 
Marigny threw up his hands, his face assumed the old expression, and he said 
in tones of the deepest grief: "How I admire you! Is it possible that I am soon 
to make a corpse of Beau Tissier?" Monsieur Tissier's anger was not proof 
against this attack, and he burst into laughter, threw himself into his opponent's 
arms, and the duel was brought to a sudden and peaceful termination. 


Another affair was recorded somewhat later, in which Monsieur Marigny 
was also one of the principals. Marigny was sent to the Legislature in 1817, ai. 
which time there was a very strong political antagonism between the Creoles 
and the Americans, which provoked many warm debates in the House and in the 
Senate. Catahoula parish was represented by a Georgian giant, an ex-blacksmith, 
named Humble, a man of plain ways but possessed of many sterling qualities. 
He was as remarkable for his immense stature as for his political diplomacy, 
standing as he did nearly seven feet in his stockings. It happened that an 
impassioned speech of Monsieur Marigny was replied to by the Georgian, and 
the latter was so extremely pointed in his allusions that his opponent felt himself 
■aggrieved and sent a challenge to mortal combat. The Georgian was nonplussed. 
"I know nothing of this duelling business," said he. "I will not fight him." 

"You must," said his friend. "No gentleman can refuse." 

"I am not a gentleman," replied the honest son of Georgia. ''I am only a 

"But you will be ruined if you do not fight," urged his friends. "You have 
the choice of weapons, and you can choose in such a way as to give yourself 
an equal chance with your adversary." 

The giant asked time to consider the proposition, and ended by accepting. He 
sent the following reply to Monsieur Marigny: 

"I accept, and in the exercise of my privilege, I stipulate that the duel shal. 
take place in Lake Pontcharartain, in six feet of water, sledge hammers to be 
used as weapons." 

Monsieur Marigny was about five feet six inches in height. The wit of the 
Georgian so pleased Monsieur Marigny, who could appreciate a joke as well a., 
perpetrate one, that he declared himself satisfied and the duel did not take place. 


The father of Bernard Marigny was a Creole of immense wealth and distinc- 
tion. It was he who received Louis Phillippe when he came to this country, on 
his plantation, which comprised the territory afterward laid out as a faubourg, 
and now the most densely populated portion of the city. "When the father died, 
Bernard inherited his wealth, and laid out the plantation in squares and called 
it the Faubourg Marigny. The ground was sola at a large profit, and Bernard 
teecame the wealthiest man of his time. 


There were a few Indian slaves. They were always troublesome, not submitting 
10 slavery as readily as their African brethren, and becoming finally so dan- 
gerous that the government interfered and issued the first American emancipation 
proclamation, freeing all the Indians. The result was a negro uprising, whic. 
was put down only w^ith considerable loss of life, and which was commemorated 
for some' time afterward by the deca:pitated heads of the negro leaders, which were ■ 
stuck on pikes at the city gates to overawe the colored population. 


These troops, which the government had managed to collect at some trouble, 
were a very hard set. They spent most of their time singing, drinking and 
gambling in the cabarets on Toulouse street. They were allowed a good deal or 
freedora, and did pretty much what they pleased. Occasionally, however, when 
after a long spree on very bad tafia, they ran amuck and grew so violent as to 
knock down and beat some quiet and inoffensive farmer from the German coast, 
come to the city with a cargo of cabbages to sell, they were locked up in the 
guardhouse until they could sober off, and perhaps received in addition a dozen 
or so lashes. 

This was far from being agreeable medicine for them, and, on the very first 
opportunity, they mutinied, killed their officers, and like Captain Dalgetty, entered 
the service of any country that would have them. If, however, they were caught,, 
it fared badly with them. Military discipline was loose in Louisiana — the men 
knew more about tafia than guns, and spent more of their time in cabarets 
than in bastions — but military punishment had caught some of nice little ideas 
from the Inquisition. A recaptured mutineer was treated in a very _ emphatic ano 
exemplary manner. Dressed in the "wedding garments of the grave," he was 
nailed alive in a neat, comfortable cypress coffin, which was then slowly sawed in 
half by the executioner. 

If the deserter escaped, but could not reach any neighboring nation, he gen- 
erally took to the woods, fraternized with the savages, married a squaw, became 
a chief, and in a little while had forgotten his language, his religion and his name. 


Rents on the Rue de la Levee and the streets nearest to the river were much 
higher than in other parts of the town. Immigration had tended to double the 
price of nearly every commodity, and as the commerce of the place was carried 
on near the levee, in front of the city, where were moored the flatboats, the 
pirogues and the schooners and few barks and ships that constituted the shipping, 
rooms and houses in that quarter were held at high rents. A barrel of rice cost 
in the market from $8.00 to $9.00; a turkey from $1.50 to $2.00; a capon from 75 
cents to $1.00; a hen from 50 to 75 cents; a pair of small pigeons 75 cents; a barrel 
of flour from $7.00 to $8.00. 




The city was guarded at night by Spanish watchmen, who sang out the hours 
as well as the state of the weather: "Nine o'clock and cloudy," or "Ten o'clock 
and the weather is clear," as the case might be. In the daytime the gens-d'armes 
patrolled the city in squads of four or five, each with a full uniform of gold lace, 
cocked hat and sword. Many were the battles fougni between the gens-d'armes 
and the flat-boatmen. 


After the close of the war with England New Orleans began to grow rapidly 
and overflowed beyond its ancient boundaries. A new and larger prison became 
necessary, and in 1834 the foundations for the prison back of Congo Square were 

Scene in Gravier Street. 

laid. As soon as it was completed all the prisoners were carried thither, and 
the work of demolishing the calaboose was commenced. It was a work of much 
more difficulty than was expected. The mortar of the Spaniards, made from the 
lime of lake shells, was as tenacious as the most durable cement and would not 
yield. It was found easier to cut through the solid bricks than to try to separate 
them; and, therefore, the work of tearing the old donjon down occupied some 
time. There is a story of how the workmen discovered skeletons bricked up 
ir the walls, and chains and shackles in the vaults, but none of our citizens 
who were living at that time ever saw any of these ghastly souvenirs of Spanish 
rule. Beneath the building, it is true, they came across some three or four deep 
vaults, which had apparently not been used for years, and this was enough 
to give rise to reports that they had discovered the dungeons of the Spanish 
Inquisition. The tale has come down, and many of the old Creoles still believe it. 



It was in 1789 that Father Antonio de Sedella was sent to New Orleans for the 
avowed purpose of introducing the Spanish Inquisition into this city. Miro was 
then the governor, and he is called in the ancient chronicles, "Just, humane and 
fearless." He received the reverend father, heard his mission, and dismissed him 
to the place appointed for him, saying that troops should be sent to his residence 
without delay. The troops came, according to the ancient story, and hurried him 
to the levee, put him on board a Spanish vessel and sent him back to Cadiz. 

The Inquisition was never planted on the shores of the new land. 

A few years later Pere Antoine came back, but by that time he had dismissed 
all thought of the Inquisition. He made himself so beloved by the people that his 
memory is yet revered as that of a great saint by the Catholics of New Orleans. 
He is buried under the altar of St. Francis, in the Cathedral; but there are not 
many who know his resting place, and even the priests of the old church have 
forgotten it. Several portraits of him are still in existence. The shadow of the 
monk thus preserved compels respect and admiration. He seem.s to have had a 
grand old face, long, and yet massive in its length. His snowy beard flowed down 
even to the hempen girdle at his waist, and, together with his tonsure, lent him 
the holy aspect of a medieval St. Anthony; his habit was of the coarsest brown 
material, and his naked feet were protected by wooden sandals. 

He lived like an anchorite, though dwelling in the heart of the city. In the 
rear of the old St. Louis Cathedral — where he has slept since 1829— he built him- 
self a rude hermitage. It was a hideous little hut of planks and boughs, much 
more uncomfortable than a dog kennel, and much more exposed to weather than a 
cow shed. It had no furniture but a bed, made of two hard boards; a stool and a 
holy water font. But here the good priest slept and ate and prayed, blessing 
God alike, whether it rained or froze; dispensing alms to the poor, and fighting 
the devil and his angels. Although at his death he left little or nothing, his 
income must certahly have been enormous, for he never visited a scene of birth, 
of death, or of marriage, without receiving some gift of the world's goods, and 
his daily visits were many. His charity, however, was greater than his income; 
and his purse, like that of the fairy tale, was being forever emptied, though fresh 
gold always glittered in the place of that taken out. This purse, tradition says, 
was a great .bag filled with clinking coin, and carried at the girdle. Whenever 
Father Antoine appeared upon the street, with cowl and sandaled feet, and with 
that delightful purse, all the children of the French quarter followed after him, 
like the children of Hamelin after the Pied Piper. They would kjieel down beside 
him in the mud to ask his blessing, and they never failed to demand that a 
lagniappe in the shape of a small coin be thrown in with the blessing. 

The good Father died at the age of eighty-one years amid the lamentations 
of the entire community. So beloved was the old priest by all classes and denom- 
inations that we even find in the papers of that day a published call to attend the 
funeral issued by the Masons of all branches. This call contained the following: 

"Masons! Remember that Father Antoine never refused to accompany to their 
last abode the mortal remains of our brothers; and gratitude now requires that 
we, of all rites and degrees, should, in our turn, accompany him thither with all 
the respect and veneration he so well deserved." 

The Masons .responded to the call. The whole city went forth to honor the 
dead. The newspapers suspended publication. The theaters were closed, the courts 
adjourned, and the City Council wore crape on the left arm for thirty days in 
memory of the priest who had come to this city to introduce the Inquisition. 
This was the tribute to the greatest humanitarian of his day. 


Here, in front of the Place d'Armes, everything was congregated — the Cathe- 
dral, the convent of the Capuchins, the Government House, the colonial prison 
and the government warehouses. Around the Square stretched the leading restau- 
rants and boutiques of the town; on the side was the Market, where not only meat,, 
fruit and vegetables were sold, but hats, shoes and handkerchiefs; while in front 
was the public landing. Here was the religious, military, industrial, commercial 
and social center of the city. Here the troops paraded on fete days, and here even 
the public executions took place, the criminals being either shot or nailed alive 
in their coffins and then slowly sawed in half. Here on holidays all the varied, 
heterogeneous population of the town gathered"— fiery Louisiana Creoles, still 
carrying rapiers, ready for prompt use at the slightest insult to their jealous 
honor; habitants fresh from Canada; rude trappers and hunters, voyageurs and 
coureurs-des-bors; plain, unpretending 'Cadians from the Attakapas, arrayed in 
their home-made blue cottonades and redolent of the herds of cattle they had 
brought with them; lazy emigre nobles, banished to this new world uoder lettres- 
de-cachet for interfering with the king's amours or taking too deep an interest 
in politics; yellow sirens from San Domingo, speaking a soft bastard French; 
staid and energetic Germans from the "German coast," with flaxen hair and Teu- 
tonic names, but speaking the purest of French; haughty Castilian soldiers, clad 
in the bright uniforms of the Spanish Cazadores; dirty Indians of the Houma 
and Natchez tribes, some free, some slaves; negroes of every hue, from dirty white 
to deepest black; and, lastly, the human trash, ex-galley slaves and adventurers, 
shipped to the colony to be gotten rid of. Here, too, in the Place d'Armes, the 
stranger could shop cheaper, if not better, than in the boutiques around it, for, 
half the trade and business of the town was itinerant. Here passed peddling 
merchants, mainly Catalans and provencals, who, instead of carrying their packs 
upon their backs, had their goods spread out in a coffin-shaped vehicle, which 
they wheeled before them; colored merchandes selling callas and cakes; and 
milk and coffee women, carrying their immense cans well balanced upon their 



turbaned heads. All through the day went up the never-ceasing- cries of the 
various street hawkers, from the "Barataria! Barataria!" and the "Callas tout 
chauds!" in the early morning to the "Belles Chandelles!" that went up as twilight 
deepened from the sturdy negresses who sold the only light of the colony — -hor- 
rible, dim, ill-smelling and smoky candles made from the green wax-myrtle. 


The cold blast blew through the square; the leaves shriveled up and dropped 
from the trees. But though Nature was asleep. New Orleans was not. The square 
was covered with all colors, all races, all ages, in holiday attire and smiling 
faces, save here and there a dress of black and an eye glistening with tears. ■ 
From the balconies of the Town Hall and the parsonage opposite looked down 
the Creole belles of the city. The old cathedral was burnished up in splendid 

The Times-Picayune Building" on left. 

style, its whole front wreathed in hanging evergreens. In the open space in the 
center of the square stood a tall arch of triumph, supported by six Corinthian 
pillars. Beneath this arbor stood two little girls, in white muslin dresses, radiant 
in many-colored ribbons. From this to the cathedral door extended on either side 
a long line of evergreens, upheld by golden lances from each of w^hich floated 
a flag embroidered with the emblazoned arms and motto of a sovereign state. 
Beside each banneret stood as guardian a fair Creole, upon her forehead a silver 
star, over her arm a basket filled with blooming flowers. 

Upon the other side, leading to the levee, stood two long ranks of soldiers; 
upon the right hand, a company of mulattoes. Next to them, a body of Choctaw 
Indians, plumed, painted and blanketed as usual. Opposite these stood a set 
of rough-looking men, with long, unwashed faces, and scraggy, unshaven beards, 
arrayed in dirty woolen hunting shirts of dingy blues and browns, and pants 
of butternut or grass-green color. Upon their heads, fur caps, adorned with 
bushy tails that spoke of raccoon and squirrel hunts in the wilds of Kentucky 


or Tennessee; in their rough, untanned deerslcin belts, rows of knives, pistols and 
tomahawks, and on their shoulders their trusty rifles, no two alike in length 
size or make. 

Suddenly a roar of cannon on the levee echoed through the square, the 
boys on the treetops shouted, the ladies waved their handkerchiefs, and the sol- 
diers brightened up and strove to assume military attitudes as a group of half 
a dozen men entered the levee gate. 

The first man who entered was a tall, gaunt old man with iron-gray hair. 
His face was beardless and wrinkled, and an expression of severity and stern- 
ness gave it a forbidding aspect. His dress was simple, almost threadbare. A 
leather cap protected his head, an old blue cloak his body. 

A single glance revealed Andrew Jackson. Though different in dress, his 
form and face were the same which in bronze today look down upon and pro- 
tect the square. 

As they walked up these human aisles, cheers on cheers went up in end- 
less succession. They neared the arch, the general stopped, the two little girls 
mounted on tiptoe, removed his cap and dropped a laurel wreath on his brow, 
which blushed a rosy red beneath its weather-beaten sallowness. 

A young lady holding in her hand a banner bearing the proud name of 
Louisiana stepped forward and in that name welcomed "the hero of New Or_ 
leans." The old soldier's face brightened, and in a trembling voice he had be- 
gun: "Ladies of Louisiana — " when the young ladies drew handfuls of flowers 
from their baskets and drowned the general in a floral rain. 


The Creole matron is the inevitable duenna of the parlor and the constant at- 
tendant chaperone at all public assemblies; an ever-vigilant guide and protector 
against aught that may offend the fine feeling, the noble pride or the generous 
heart of the demoiselle. And when the time comes for la belle to marry, she does 
not trust her own unguided fancies, although she may have read in story-books of 
gallant knights. The Creole matron saves her all the trouble in the perplexing 
choice of a husband, and manages the whole affair with extreme skill, tact and 
ability. The preliminaries arranged, the selected husband is invited >to the house, 
the drawing roorh cleared of all superfluities, and the couple left to an agreeable 
tete-a-tete, during which they behave like sensible children and exchange vows and 
rings. The nuptial mass at the church follows, and there is no breaking of en- 
gagements or hearts in Creole etiquette. 


George W. Cable, in his readings some years ago, gave a number of specimens 
of Creole dialect songs, of which the following is an example: 

"Z'autres qu'a di moin, ca yon bonheur; 
Et moin va di, ca yon peine — • 
D'Amour quand porte le chaine. 
Adieu, corri tout bonheur! 

Pauvre piti' Mamzel Zizi, 

Pauvre piti' Mamzel Zizi, 

Pauvre piti' Mamzel Zizi, 
Li gagnin doulor, doulor, doulor — 
Li gagnin doulor dons coeur a li!" 

The sober English of this is: 

"Others say it is your happiness, 
I say it is your sorrow; 
When we were enchanted by love 
Farewell to all happiness! 
Poor little Miss Zizi, 
Poor little Miss Zizi, 
Poor little Miss Zizi, 
She has sorrow^, sorrow, sorrow, 
She has sorrow in her heart!" 


It is not generally known, perhaps, that one of the most daring plots for 
ine rescue of a prisoner ever made, in fact or fiction, was elaborated in this 
city, and that the prisoner was the Emperor Napoleon. The man who was 
to carry out the scheme was a retired sea captain named Bossiere, who was 
ready for any adventure and would look death in the face with an unflinch- 
ing eye. 

The most interesting incident connected with Captain Bossiere, our retired sea 
captain, was that which, many years ago was quite familiar to many of our 
citizens. This was the fact that his vessel, the Seraphine, was built for a 
special purpose, and a large sum of money was made up in New Orleans and in 
cnarleston to carry out that object, and complete her in a style that would 
render her the fastest vessel in the world, the staunchest and the most nav- 

Bossiere was the chief agent of the parties engaged in this plot. To him 
was assigned the supervision of the building and equipment of the vessel. When 



launched in the great enterprise to which she had been dedicated, Bossiere with 
a picked crew was to command her. 

The object of the parties thus enlisted in the adventure in question was 
the rescue of the Emperor Napoleon from his rocky prison in the island of 
St. Helena. The plot was well laid. Several old French residents of New Or- 
leans engaged warmly in it. Among these was Nicholas Girod, mayor of the 
city for several terms, the same who received Jackson on his entrance into the 
city in 1814, and of whose gallantry and efficiency Jackson bore eloquent tes- 
timony in his g'ejieral orders. He was a sturdy, patriotic and philanthropic 
old gentleman, and at his death made the handsome bequest to the city known 
as the Girod legacy. 

Mr. Girod was an intense and devoted friend and admirer of the great Na- 
poleon and a vigorous hater of the British. He never tired in his denuncia- 
tion of the brutality of imprisoning so illustrious a rnan in that miserable is- 
land, and with other old Napoleonists was constantly devising means for his 
escape. As a proof of his confidence in this expectation he had erected what 
was then considered the finest building in the city, at the corner of St. Louis 
and Chartres streets, which he intended to donate to the emperor as his fu- 
ture residence in this city. 

It was in co-operation with him and other old Napoleonists in this city 
and Charleston that Bossiere proceeded with great energy in constructing and 
equipping his clipper. AVhen completed, she proved to be a beauty — a model of 
a fast sailing and strong clipper of about 200 tons. The crew, too, had al. 
ready been engaged and thoroughly drilled. They were picked sailors and fight- 
ers, men of the most desperate character. Bossiere had been provided with the 
most accurate maps of the harbor and plans of the fortifications, with the sta- 
tions and armaments of the various ships of war guarding the island, and 
with tlie regulations of the military force and garrison. 

Bossiere's whole soul was in the enterprise. But alas, man proposes, God 
disposes. Three days before that which had been fixed for the departure of the 
Seraphine. the news reached America of the death of the great Napoleon, on 
the 5th of May, 1821. Never was a man stricken with more poignant grief than 
Bossiere. « 


In former years all, or nearly all, executions were public, but the last one was 
that of Delisle and Adams, the former a Creole and the latter a Frenchman, who 
were convicted of murdering a woman in what is now the Third district. They 
saw the woman secrete a bag containing what they thought was specie, and they 
killed her to obtain possession of it; when, to their consternation, the bag was found 
to contain pecans. The circumstances surrounding their execution were so hor- 
rible that a riot was imminent. It is said that they appeared — to the eyes of the 
multitude assembled on the neutral ground in Orleans street — on the small gallery 
extending across the alley or court between the two buildings, the male and 
female departments, which form the Parish Prison. 

Delisle was violent and demonstrative, while Adams was subdued and quiet, 
and wished to precipitate matters. Ropes were adjusted around their necks. 
Delisle expostulating loudly all the time. The weather was dark and gioomy, a som- 
ber cloud overspread the face of the sky, angry flashes of lightning lit up the scene 
followed by a dull, rolling noise of the thunder in the distance. 

Tlie trap fell, and at the same instant a blinding flash of lightning, instan- 
taneously followed by a loud clap of thunder, almost frightened the people into 
spasms. The rain poured down in torrents. Many fled the terrible scene, ren- 
dered doubly terrible by the ominous appearance of the heavens. "When the fear, 
which ■^•as only momentary with most of those present, had somewhat subsided, 
the ropes were seen dangling and swaying loosely in the wind, for there was notb- 
ins; at the lower end. 

On the flagging beneath the gallows two forms were seen lying on the pave- 
ment. They were the bodies of Delisle and Adams. The former started to craw) 
away on hands and feet, and the latter lay moaning -with pain. His arm was 
broken. Pity for the two men became predominant in the hearts of the multitude; 
but the law was inexorable, and its servants were compelled to perform their 
horrible duty. The two men were picked up and conducted back to their former 
positions on the scaffold, despite the torrents of rain which fell, and, in defiance of 
what seemed to the terror-stricken people to be an intervention of Providence, they 
were hanged. 

The police force at that time was under the command of Steve O'Leary, and he, 
with a detail of fully two hundred men, had great difficulty in quieting the mob 
during the confusion which ensued. 

This execution was viewed with so much abhorrence and indignation through- 
out the city that the Legislature, at its next session, passed a law prohibiting 
public executions. 


The following precepts were inscribed on the tomb of the philanthropist who 
left a fortune to New Orleans for schools: 

Remember always that labor is one of the conditions of our existence. 

Time is gold, throw not one minute away, but place each one to account. 

Do unto all men as you would be done by. 

Never put off till tomorrow what you can do today. 

Never bid another do what you can do yourself. 

Never covet what is not your own. 


Never think any matter so trivial as not to deserve notice. 
Never give out that which does not first come in. 
Never spend but to produce. 
■ Let the greatest order regulate the transactions of your life. 
Study in your course of life to do the greatest possible amount of good. 
Deprive yourself of nothing necessary to your comfort, but live in an hon- 
orable simplicity and frugality. 

Labor then to the last moment of your existence. 


The Mississippi, in the spring of 1844, began to rise early and rapidly, and 
for more than a month rushed by the city brimful, threatening devastation on 
all sides. About the first of May the waters began to decrease, having ex- 
hausted their supply, and in the course of a few weeks, safety seemed as- 
sured, when, on the afternoon of the 30th of May, the bank above the point 
at Algiers caved in, carrying with it a number of small shanties and some cot- 
ton. Below this spot stood, besides the boathouses, a large salt and produce 
warehouse and a tavern, but no one for a moment supposed that these build- 
ings, situated some distance from the water, were in danger. The evil wa.'' 
thought to be past, but that evening at about half past nine, while most 
of the residents of Algiers were at church, the alarm was sounded that the 
whole point was going down into the river. In an instant the church was 
deserted, and all flocked to the river just in time to see the roof of the old 
warehouse whirled away by the angry, seething flood, into the darkness of the 
stormy night. When the morning broke, not a vestige of the boathouse or 
the other building:s near them remained; and on the spot where they had stood 
the lead found nine fathoms of water. Nothing in any of the buildings was 
saved except a canary in its cage, which was rescued from the Algerine boat- 
house by Mr. Clark, one of the boat-club. 


It was entirely due to Bienville's perspicacity and obstinacy that New Orleans 
was finally made the capital of the French possessions in America. The state 
of Louisiana and the city of New Orleans have ill requited him. In the United 
States Customhouse there is a basso_relievo in marble of Bienville, which is the 
only monument ever erected to him in New Orleans. A single street bears his name, 
thanks to de la Tour, his own engineer. Beyond this. New Orleans has done noth- 
ing to honor the man to whom she owes her foundation, and whom for years her 
people called "father." 


In the faubourg that extended above the city, with a frontage of 600 yards by a 
depth of 300, were two establishments where cotton -was cleaned, put up in bales 
and weighed. The only other factory that deserved the name, also in the fau- 
bourg, was a sugar refinery, where brown sugar was transformed into a white 
sugar of fine appearance. This establishment the city owed to the enterprise 
of certain French refugees from San Domingo. 


Of the public buildings which are familiar to the eyes of the present generation, 
only the French Market, the Cathedral and the Cabildo remain. The Cathedral 
was not yet finished, and lacked those quaint white Spanish towers and the central 
belfry which in 1814 and 1815 were added to it. The "Very Illustrious Cabildo," 
which held weekly meetings in the building by that name, was the municipal 
body of New Orleans. It was composed of twelve individuals called regidors, and 
was presided over by the Governor General and his Civil Lieutenant. Jackson 
Square, called then the Place d'Armes, was used as a review-ground by the troops, 
and was resorted to by nurses and children — the elders taking their airing on the 
levee, or the Grand Chemin that fronted the houses of the Rue de la Levee. 
The Square was then but a grass plot, barren of trees, and used as a play- 
ground by the children. It was rather a ghostly place, too, for the children 
to play. A w^ooden gallows stood in the middle of it for several years, and more 
than one poor fellow was swung off into eternity about the spot where General 
Jackson now sits in effigy. Then, there were no trees, no flowers, and there was 
no watchman to drive away the little fellows at play. The gallows was not the 
only stern and forbidding and uncongenial thing about the place, either; for the 
Calabosa stood just opposite. 


"Slaves," said Article 20 of the ordinance, "who shall not be properly fed, 
clad and provided for by their masters may give information thereof to the at- 
torney general of the Superior Council, or to any officer of justice of an in- 
ferior jurisdiction, and may put the written exposition of their wrongs into their 
hands; upon which information, and even ex-officio, should the information 
come from another quarter, the attorney general shall prosecute said masters 
without charging any costs to the complainants. It is our loyal will- that this 
regulation be observed in all accusations for crimes or barbarous and inhuman 
treatment brought by slaves against their masters." Slaves, disabled from work- 
ing, either from old age, disease or otherwise, be the disease incurable or not. 


■were to be fed and provided for by their masters, ajid in case of being aban- 
dond by said masters, said slaves were to be adjudged to the nearest hos- 
pital, to which said masters were compelled to pay eight cents a day for the 
food and maintenance of each of these slaves, and for the payment of this sum 
said hospital had a lien on the plantation of the master. 


Lafitte's person is thus described: He was a well-formed, handsorae man, 
about six feet two inches in height, strongly built, with large hazel eyes and 
black hair, and generally wore a mustache. Dressed in a green uniform ~and 
an otter-skin cap. He was a man of polite and easy manners, generous disposi- 
tion, and of such winning address that his influence over his followers was 
■alnaost absolute. 


That the plot to free the Emperor Napoleon and bring him to New Orleans 
•was known to and authorized by Napoleon's staff at St. Helena was long after- 
wards acknowledged by Dr. Antommarchi and Marshal Bertrand, who vis- 
ited the city some years after the death of their chief. Dr. Antommarchi tes- 
tified his appreciation of the generous impulses and sentiments of the people 
of New Orleans by presenting a death mask of Napoleon, which, though for 
.many years kept in the City Hall, is now on exhibition at the Cabildo. 


The "Cajan" was as prolific as his Canadian cousin. In 1765-66 some 866 Aca- 
dians arrived at New Orleans; in 1788 a few more came, making altogether, 
perhaps, one thousand; who in the lapse of less than a century, numbered at. 
least 40,000, covering the whole western part of the state. 

In Louisiana the expelled people were free from persecutions and found a 
kindred tongue. They settled in the western portion of the state, on the prairies 
of the Opelousas, where they mainly live to this day, wonderfully increased in 
numbers, but in many respects the same primitive people they were when they 
left Nova Scotia. 


Engraved Map of New Orleans. 


Absinthe House, Old 39 

Across-the-L,ake 114 

Albert Sidney Johnston Monument. . . 103 

Algiers 107 

An Old Rise in the River 128 

Archepiscopal Palace 42 

Association of Commerce 66 

Asylums for Orphans , 96 

Audubon Park 105 

Audubon Statue 102 

Avenues 105 


Baggage Transfers 3 

Baptist Churches 8 

Barracks, United States 52 

Baseball Park ...107 

Bay St. Louis 114 

Beauregard Monument 102 

Beauregard Home 44 

Beauregard Square 44 

Behrman Gymnasium 77 

Belt Railroad 77 

Beyond the Vieux Carre 45 

Bienville, Founder of New Orleans.. 128 

Biloxi 115 

Board of Trade 66 

Boston Club 66 


Cabildo 31-34 

Camp Grounds, Seashore 115 

Camp Nicholls, the Soldiers' Home... 49 

Canal, New Basin 64 

Canal Street 27 

Carmelite Convent 44 

Cai ronton Gardens 109 

Cathedral, Christ Church 89 

Cathedral, St. Louis 35 

Catholic Churches 8 

Cemeteries, Old 49-51 

Chalmette Battlefield 52-53 

Chalmette Monument 105 

Chalmette National Cemetery 55 

Charity Hospital 93 

Chess, Checkers and Whist Club 72 

Christ Church Cathedral 89 

Christian Churches 8 

Christian Woman's Exchange 72 

Churches 7-8-92-95 

City Hall .57 

City Park 47 

Clubs 7 

Clubs and Organizations 66-75 

Commercial Organizations 7 

Confederate Monument 103 

Conquering Hero, The 124 

Cotton and Sugar in 1802 12.8 

Cotton Exchange 65 

Cotton Warehouse 61 

Country Club, New Orleans 71 

Country Club, Oakland 71 

Courthouse, New 57 

Creole Song, A Taste of the Old 125 

Creole Stories, Old 117-129 

Crescent Theater 97 

Criminal Court Building 57 

Customhouse 29-31 


Delgado Museum , 87 

Description of Jean Lafitte 129 

Docks, New Orleans 63 

Docks, Stuyvesant 64 

Downtown Street Cars 5-6 

Dr. Antommarchi 129 

Dr. Palmer's Church 91 


Elder Marigny 121 

Elks 74 

Episcopal Churches 8 

Era Club 72 

Evangelical Churches 8 

Express Companies 6 

Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat Hos- 
pital 95 


Ferries 9 

Filtration Plant 64 

First Emancipation Proclamation . . 121 

First Methodist Church 92 

First Parish Prison 122 

First Theater 119 and Hunting 116 

Flint-Goodrich Hospital 95 

Franklin Statue 101 

French Market 34 

French Opera House 40 

French Quarter 10-12 

French Union Hall 44 


Government Troops in the Old Days. 121 

Grain Elevator 59 

Grand Isle 115 

Grand Route St. John 47 

Gretna 109 

Gulfport 115 


Harmony Club 69 

Haunted House 41-42 

Home for Incurables 96 

Homes for the Aged 96 

Hospitals 93-95 



Hotel Dieu (Hospital) 95 

Hotel Royal 36-39 

Hotels 7, 12-14 

Howard Memorial Library 85 

Hunting and Fishing 116 

Hutchinson Memorial Medical School 81 


Immigration Station 109 

Important Things to Know 9 

In the Beginning 17-23 


Jackson Monument 101 

Jackson Square 34 

Jefferson Davis Monument 102 

Jefferson Highway 24 

Jesuits' Church 92 


Knights of Columbus Hall 75 


Lafayette Theater 97 

Lafitte Blacksmith Shop, Site of . . . 39 

Last Public Execution 127 

Liberty Monument 101 

Libraries 7 

Libraries, Public 87 

Louisiana Club 67 

Louisiana Naval Reserve 74 

Loyola University 83 

Lutheran Churches 8 


Madame John's Legacy 41 

Mardi Gras 25-27 

Margaret Statue 103 

Marigny Duels 120 

Masonic Temple '74 

McDonogh Monument 103 

McDonogh's Precepts 127 

Memorial Hall 88 

• Messenger Service 6 

Methodist Episcopal Churches 8 

Methodist Episcopal (South) 

Churches 8 

Milneburg 114 

Mint 40 

Mississippi City 115 

Monuments and Statues 98-105 

Museums 7 


Napoleon's Retreat 39 

Negro Universities 85 

New Basin Canal 64 

Newcomb Memorial College 81 

New Courthouse 57 

Newman Manual Training School . . 83 

New Orleans 23 

New Orleans Country Club 71 

New Orleans Docks 63 

New Orleans in 1802 117 

New Orleans in 1805 118 

New Orleans in 1822 118 

New Orleans Public Libraries 87 

New Orleans, Something About 9 

New Orleans Streets 105 

New Orleans Theaters 97 

New Orleans Tomorrow 24 

New St. Louis Cemetery 51 

Night Watchmen 122 


Oakland Country Club 71 

Offices, Railroad S 

Old Absinthe House 39 

Old Cemeteries 49-51 

Old Creole Stories 117-129 

Old-Time Dancing .' 119 

Old-Time High Cost of Living. 121 

Orphan Asylums 96 

Orpheum Theater 97 


Parish Prison, Site of Old ■44 

Pass Chriistian 115 

Pere Antoine 12? 

Pickwick Club 6T 

Post Office (New) 59 

Presbyterian Churches 7 

Presbyterian Hospital 93 

Presbytery 35 

Press Club 71 

Principal Sights of Interest 9 

Prominent Churches 7-8 

Public Belt Railroad 59 

Public Buildings >in 1802 128 

Public Libraries 87 

Public Schools 75- 


Railroad Offices 3" 

Railroad Stations 3-107 

R. E. Lee Statue 102 

Restaurants '7-14 

Round Table Club 6T 

Rules Regarding the Treatment of 

Slaves 128 

Scenes Around the Old Place 

d'Armes 123^ 

Schools and Universities 75-85 

Schools, Public 7& 

Scottish Rite Cathedral 74 

Seashore Camp Grounds 115 

Shopping District 7 

Site of Old Parish Prison 44 

Soldiers' Home . 49- 

Something About New Orleans 9 

Southern Yacht Club 69 

Spanish Fort 113" 

St. Anthony of Padua 43 

St. Augustine's Church 44 

St. Louis Cathedral 35 

St. Louis Cemetery (New) 51 

St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 49 

St. Louis Cemetery No. 2 51 

St. Roch's Chapel 51 

State Museum 89 

Stations, Railroad 3-105 

Steamboat Lines 6 

Steamship Lines 6 

Story of the Plan to Rescue Na- 
poleon 125- 



Stratford Club 71 

Street Car Itineraries 15 

Street Car Lines 3 

Street Numbers 8 

Streets 105 

Stuyvesant Docks 64 

Sug-ar Exchange 66 

Synagogues 8 


Telegraph Offices 6 

Temple Sinai 93 

The Acadians 129 

Theaters 7 

The Creole Matron of the Old Times. 125 

Touro Buildings 31 

Touro Infirmary 95 

Transfers, Baggage 3 

Trinity Church 89 

Tulane Medical Museum 89 

Tulane Natural History Museum 89 

Tulane Theater 97 

Tulane University 79 


Unitarian Churches 8 

United States Barracks 52 

United States Marine Hospital 95 

United States Mint 40 

Universities and Schools 75-85 

Uptown Street Cars 3-5 

Ursulines' School 85 


Vacation Places Ill 

Vieux Carre, Beyond the 45 


Washington Artillery Hall ; . . 72 

Water Front 9 

Waveland 114 

West End Ill 

Woman's Dispensary 96 

Young Men's Christian Association.. 72 

Young Men's Gymnastic Club 67 

Young Men's Hebrew Association ... 71 

Young Women's Christian Association 72 



Algiers Branch Public Library 86 

An Uptown Street in New Orleans.. 126 

Athenaeum, The 71 

Audubon Statue 100 


Bayou St. John 112 

Beauregard Monument 98 

Beauregard Public School 78 

Boys' High S'chool 77 

Bridge in the City Park 50 


Cablldo 31 

Camp Street, Showing Times-Pic- 
ayune Building 124 

Car in the Rex Mardi Gras Parade.. 15 

Carondelet and Canal Streets 120 

Chalmette Cemetery 53 

Chalmette Monument . 100 

Charity Hospital 94 

Chartres Street, Showing Girod Res- 
idence and the Napoleon House . . 13 

Christ Church Cathedral 90 

City Hall 57 

City Park, Bridge in the 50 

City Park, In the 46 

Clay Monument 98 

Confederate Monument 101 

Cotton Exchange 65 

Cotton Warehouse on the Missis- 
sippi river 22 

Cotton Warehouse, Interior View 61 

Country Club 70 

Courtyard in the Cabildo 32 

Courtyard in the French Quarter.... 37 

Criminal Court Buildings 54 

Customhouse 28 


Delgado Museum 87 

Dr. Palmer's Church 91 

Dryades Branch (Negro) Public 

Library 86 

Dry Dock, United States Naval 

Station 109 

Elks Home 16 


Ferry Landing 118 

Filtration Plant 62 

First Methodist Church 92 

First Presbyterian Church 91 

French Market 33 

Frenchmen Street Branch Public 

Library 86 

French Opera House 11 

Fruit Stand in the French Market.. 33 

F. W. Tilton Memorial Library 78 


Gibson Hall, Tulane University 80 

Girls' High School, Esplanade Avenue 76 

Grain Elevator, New Public 58 

Grain Elevators on the Mississippi.. 60 


Harmony Club 69 

Haunted House, Door of 42 



Henry Clay Monument 98 

Hotel Royal 11 

Hutchinson Memorial Medical 

S'chool 81 


Interior View of Cotton Warehouse. 61 


Jackson Square and St. Loui.^; 

Cathedral 18 

Jefferson Davis Monument 98 


Knights of Columbus Hall 75 


Lee Monument 98 

Loyola University 84 

Lugger Landing at Old Basin 47 


Madame John's Legacy 20 

Main Aisle. St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 48 

Marble Hall in the Customhouse.... 30 

Mardi Gras Throng in Canal Street. . 26 

Margaret Monument 100 

McDonogh Monument 100 

Memorial Hall 88 

Mint, United States 40 


Napoleon Branch Public Library.... 86 

Naval Station 108 

Newcomb Memorial College 82 

New Grain Elevator 58 

New Orleans City Hall 57 

New Orleans Country Club 70 

New Orleans in 1850, From an Old 

Print 4 

New Orleans Public Library.... 86 


Oak Trees in Audubon Park 106 

Old Residences in Rampart Street... 20 

Old Tombs, St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 48 

Orleans Alley 38 


Parade Ground, U. S. Barracks 52 

Postoffice and Courts Building 56 

Public Grain Elevator (New) 58 


Rex Pageant in Canal Street 25 

Royal Street, Looking North from 

Canal 36 


St. Anthony of Padua Church 43 

St. Louis Cathedral 18 

St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 48 

St. Roch's Chapel 49 

Sacristy, St. Louis Catherdal 35 

Scene in Canal Street 30 

Scene in Gravier Street 122 

Scottish Rite Cathedral 73 

Shriners' Temple 73 

Sophie B. Wright High School 

(Girls) 76 

Southern Yacht Club 68 

Spanish Port, At Old 113 

Spanish Tile Roof House at the Cor- 
ner of Chartres and Dumaine 

Streets 13 

Steamboat Landing 117 


Touro-Shakspeare Almshouse 96 

United States Barracks, Parade 

Grounds 52 

United States Customhouse 28 

United States Mint 40 

United States Naval Station 108 

Ursuline Convent, Old Buildings.... 55 

Ursulines' School 104 


"Washington Artillery Monument 99 

"West End Fountain 110 

AVest End, General View Ill 


Young Men's Gymnastic Club 67 

Young Men's Hebrew Association.... 71 


When You Are in New Orleans 
— Do as Orleanians Do! 

Dine at 



414 St. Charles St. 

Phone Main 147 

New Orleanj" 


Men from All Over the World, on Visits to New Orleans, Eat at 

The Widely Celebrated Bohemian 

Stag Restaurant 


Maylie & Esparbe 


Where You'll Get a Meal "Never to Be Forgotten 

Breekiast at 10:30 A. I ^i I Dinner at 6 P. M. 
Except Snnilay v-l | Daily - - 

To Be Sure of a Seat— Phone US. 

For Gentlemen Only. 

1001 Poydras Street Phone Main 1099 



See New Orleans in one of our large Sight-Seeing Cars. Leave 
promptly daily at 10 a. m. — 1 :30 p. m. — and 3 :30 p. m. from corner of 
Canal and Baronne Streets, and from in front of the H. B. Stevens & Co., 
Ltd., Store at 710 Canal Street. For any other infor- 
mation, ring us up. Phones are Main 49 and 50. 

FARE $1 

Picayune Creole 
Cook Book 





4^*1^ HE Question of "a good cook" is now 
/"i becoming a very vexing problem. The 
^^^ only remedy for this state of things is 
^^ for the women of the present day to do 
as their grandmothers did, acquaint 
themselves thoroughly with the art of cook- 
ing in all its important and minutest details, 
and learn how to properly apply them. To 
assist the good housewives of the present day 
in this, to preserve to future generations the 
many excellent and matchless recipes of our 
New Orleans cuisine, to gather these up from 
the lips of the old Creole negro cooks and the 
grand old housekeepers who still survive, ere 
they, too, pass away, and Creole Cookery, 
with all its delightful combinations and pos- 
sibilities, will have become a lost art, is in a 
measure the object of this book. :: :: :: 

Retail Price at The Times-Picayune Office . $1.25 
By Registered Mail, Po^age Prepaid . . . $1.50 






A BRIEF HISTORY 01 ® "" s-ilM? A^^ 

The South's Greatest Newspaper 

The Picayune was established in 1837. Its first issue appeared Jan. 25 
of that year. The Times was established in 1863 and consolidated with The 
Democrat in 1881, becoming The Times-Democrat. The Times-Democrat soon 
became a great force in the upbuilding of the New South. It stood out 
boldly against political oppression, both State and National, and championed 
the cause of those oppressed by foreign nations. Its position on all public 
questions was well known. Every force at its command was used to better 
living conditions and for educating the masses. 

For many years The Times-Democrat and The Picayune were two great 
forces at work strengthening the community and the nation and upbuilding 
the city and its surrounding territory. In 1914 these two great morning 
dailies were consolidated, becoming 

™r,«'^^® Picayune came into great prominence during the Mexican War, 
when one of its founders, Mr. Kendall, served with the armies of invasion! 
Ihe stories of the battles were written by him on the battlefields— the copy 
was sent to The Picayune by "Pony Express." There were relays of horses 
and riders, and a skiff carried the messenger across the Mississippi river 
into New Orleans. The whole country was "scooped," The Picayune print- 
ing the news frequently several days in advance of the government dispatches. 

This was the first individual news-gathering enterprise ever instituted 
by a newspaper and marked a new era of progress in American journalism, 
which IS so highly developed today. The "Pony Express" has given way to 
\l!rl !F^^^' t^i^Pho^e- wireless, United States Mail and Express services. 
With these modern forces at command, and with leased wire service to 
J\ew York and Washington, and correspondents everywhere, all the im- 
portant news of the day, the world over, is gathered and printed in The 
Times-Picayune for the enlightenment of the people. 

In 1847 there were nine newspapers in New Orleans. Today The Times- 
±;icayune is the only English survivor of New Orleans historical journalism. 
The history of The Times-Picayune is largely the history of our people. It 
lyed with them through wars with foreign nations and our own great Civil 
War, through periods of great financial stress, famine, pestilence and floods 
—through the dark days of reconstruction after the Civil War— through all 
the sorrows and ills that beset our people, to emerge with them each time 
stronger and more resolute than ever before. 

Serving the people faithfully, through thick and thin, having in mind 
increased efficiency and making the newspaper better as time rolls on. is 
the secret of its enviable prestige.